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VCU Magazine 

Virginia Commonwealth University Spring 1982 

'Streetcar" makes a stop in Cairo. Page 6. 

VCU Magazine 

A publication for the alumni and friends of 
Virginia Commonwealth University. 

Volume 11, Number 1 
Spring 1982 

3 Advocates for the equal opportunity classroom 

After five years of controversy the dust has settled over 
the issue of mandatory return of handicapped children 
to regular classrooms. With the aid of a federal grant 
faculty members in the School of Education are training 
future teachers to deal effectively v^ith handicapped 

6 Reflections from Cairo 

Dusty classrooms, makeshift blackboards, and a short 
supply of textbooks have not deterred a VCU English 
professor and Fulbright Award recipient who is spend- 
ing the 1981-82 academic year in Egypt teaching Ameri- 
can literature to university students. 

10 Who owns the sun? 

Current legislation does not provide full protection to a 
solar energy user whose house is blocked by a newly- 
constructed building. That spells bad news for the in- 
creasing number of homeowners who have turned to 
solar design in an effort to beat the rising cost of heat- 
ing fuels. 

15 Gypsy marriage: an exercise in economics 

Gypsies take a completely different approach to mar- 
riage than do members of our society, one that reveals 
many of the unique behavioral characteristics which set 
gypsies apart from other cultures. 

18 Reaganomics: bad news for researchers 

Shrinking federal support for scientific and medical 
research is of prime concern to researchers at VCU and 
other institutions across the country. 

20 University News 

25 Newsmakers 

26 Alumni Update 

Each issue of VCU Magazine details only a few of the interesting aspects of Virginia Com- 
monwealth University. The opinions expressed in VCU Magazine are those of the author 
and are not necessarily those of VCU. 

Located in Virginia's capital city, Richmond, VCU is composed of two campuses — the 
Medical College of Virginia Campus and the Academic Campus. VCU traces its founding 
to 1838, the year in which MCV was created as a department of Hampden-Svdney Col- 
lege. The Academic Campus is the former Richmond Professional Institute which was 
begun in 1917. VCU is the third largest state-aided university in Virginia and enrolls 
nearly 20,000 students. 

VCU Magazine is produced quarterly by the Office of University Publications. 

Copyright © 1982 by Virginia Commonwealth University 

Ed Kanis, editor 

Charlie Martin, designer 

David Mathis, director of university publications 


Advocates for the equal 
opportunity classroom 

By Laurel Bennett 

When, in 1975, Congress 
enacted special legislation 
concerning the rights of handi- 
capped children to a better educa- 
tion, the act created controversies 
and misunderstandings. What it 
meant and who was responsible 
for what were argued and de- 
bated. Today, with the develop- 
ment of manageable and realistic 
program alternatives, the correct- 
ness of Public Law 14-142 has 
slowly become apparent. 

The law, generally referred to 
as mainstreaming, provided that 
all handicapped children from age 
three through 21 were entitled to 
a free and appropriate education. 
Full implementation was expected 
by September 1980. 

Initial reaction to the law, espe- 
cially among educators in both 
elementary and secondary 
schools, was predictable. As 
VCU's Dr. Sam Craver, associate 
professor of education, explained, 
"There were some pretty rampant 
horror stories concerning the idea 
that there was going to be an in- 
discriminate plunking down of 
severely retarded or physically 
handicapped children into ordi- 
nary classrooms. However, the 
law itself made very clear and 
specific provisions that this would 
not happen." 

The act provided only for the 
most appropriate education for 
each child in the least restrictive 
environment. It did not mean the 
wholesale return of severely dis- 
abled children in special classes to 
the regular classroom, nor did it 
mean permitting children with 
special requirements to remain in 
regular classrooms without the 
support services they needed. 
"What it did mean," emphasized 
Craver, "was that mildly handi- 

capped children who had thus far 
been segregated into special edu- 
cation classrooms, and who were 
often grouped together and 
treated like nonpersons, were 
now no longer denied access to a 
good, comprehensive education." 

To assure implementation and 
appropriate program changes, 
part of the law provided for 
grants to be awarded to colleges 
and universities to enable them to 
have the funds to design, de- 
velop, and implement modifi- 
cations to the curricula and train- 
ing programs for education ma- 

Known as the Dean's Grant 
Project on Mainstreaming, one of 
the primary aspects of the award 
is to effect change in the univer- 
sity classroom through awareness 
of the problems of the handi- 
capped among staff members at 
the university. 

Craver agreed "the best way to 
effect a change in attitudes is to 
prepare the faculty who prepare 
the teachers." Addressing VCU's 
involvement with the program he 
said, "If you're going to spend 
money in a wise and reasonable 
way, then every institution that 
prepares teachers, if it's doing its 
job, has got to get involved with 
this program. If you believe in 
equal opportunity then this pro- 
ject is a way of fulfilling that 

William Goggin, assistant pro- 
fessor of education, explained 
that the nationwide mainstream- 
ing effort began in 1975, and the 
first two-year grant was awarded 
to VCU in 1978. Approximately 
150 colleges and universities have 
already participated in the main- 
streaming project. "In accepting 

the grants," he said, "deans com- 
mit their offices to taking initia- 
tives in planning, coordinating, 
and administrating program 
changes specifically designed to 
address the needs of the handi- 
capped student." The grants al- 
low faculty members the opportu- 
nity to increase and develop their 
own knowledge and skills while 
they prepare regular teachers to 
accommodate their own programs 
to the needs of the handicapped. 
Thus far nearly 60 faculty mem- 
bers have been involved in one or 
more aspects of the grant. 

"At VCU faculty participation 
in the program is strictly volun- 
tary," said Goggin, who has been 
directly involved with the Dean's 
Grant for two years. "Each uni- 
versity may develop its own pro- 
gram model. We have a unique 

At VCU faculty from differing 
education areas work in teams. 
The small teams were created 
during 1978-79 and concentrated 
on teachers in elementary educa- 
tion. Three additional teams were 
created during 1979-80. This year 
three more teams have been 
added, some of whose faculty 
work in secondary education. 
Each team consists of three fac- 
ulty members, two in general 
education and one in special edu- 
cation, plus a graduate assistant. 
Special education faculty (profes- 
sors who concentrate only on 
handicapped children) serve as a 
resource to the total project. 

The teams meet on their own 
part of the time, and the entire 
group meets periodically with 
Dean Charles Ruch. The group 
meetings are designed to enhance 
the interrelationship of the teams, 
as well as provide for a common 

exchange of ideas, problems, and 

"The idea of teams is two-fold," 
said Goggin. "First, the mutual 
exchange of experiences between 
special education faculty and the 
regular content area professors 
allows for discussion of their own 
special characteristics. Second, 
though we are not charged with 
changing already established 
course curricula, we are commit- 
ted to the design, development, 
and field evaluation of a series of 
learning activities to be incorpo- 
rated directly into the elementary 
and secondary curricula, plus 
upgrading the delivery and qual- 
ity of instructional material." 

Dr. Daisy Reed, assistant pro- 
fessor of education who super- 

vises field placement, said that 
her team's particular task was to 
see how to best incorporate main- 
streaming into field experiences. 
A member of one of the first 
teams, she said, "At the begin- 
ning our meetings with the spe- 
cial education person were partic- 
ularly helpful because most of us 
didn't know very much about 
handicapped children. We 
learned the specific characteristics 
and differences between the emo- 
tionally disturbed, the physically 
handicapped, and the mentally 
retarded child. We had noticed," 
she continued, "in our own prac- 
ticum experiences that the 
teachers in the field who had 

never had prior training with the 
handicapped knew as little as we 
did and, consequently, there was 
much unnecessary transfer of 
hostility to handicapped stu- 

To help create a better under- 
standing of the strengths and 
weaknesses of handicapped chil- 
dren. Reed's team designed a 
handbook that described the dif- 
ferent kinds of handicapping con- 
ditions her students might en- 
counter in their classrooms. "In 
addition, as part of my practicum, 
I have created specific assign- 
ments which include having the 
students make lesson plans that 
provide for the preparation of 
these particular students," she 
said. "I have received very posi- 
tive feedback from my students 

who teach in classrooms where 
there are handicapped children. 
They are no longer afraid or un- 
sure of how they are going to 
integrate these children." 

Solving real education problems 
is a very important part of main- 
streaming at VCU. A mainstream- 
ing resource center was estab- 
lished within the school's Teacher 
Resource Workshop. The center, 
created specifically to assist fac- 
ulty and students in designing 
and constructing curriculum ma- 
terials for handicapped children 
in regular classrooms, serves as a 
resource for the project activities 
and as a means of disseminating 
project materials to the entire 
faculty. A bibliography of mate- 
rials from the university's Cabell 
Library was developed to aug- 
ment the school's resources. 

As a result of small team activi- 
ties, 13 training packages were 
developed in the first two-year 
period. In addition, a number of 
slide-tape presentations have 
been created and are available to 
both faculty and students. 

Initiation of the project at VCU 
has helped the university in redis- 
covering that fundamental change 
in teacher education is a complex, 
slow process. The program 
presents difficult and sensitive 
challenges to planning and pro- 
gram development. The chal- 
lenges now in colleges and uni- 
versities are beginning to parallel 
events already occurring in the 
public schools. But the successes 
are rapidly showing that the new 
modes of work with handicapped 
children, in fact, means changes 
for all students. 

At VCU through yearly fund- 
ing, the strategy for program 
influence and modification will 
continue to acquaint many of the 
elementary and secondary faculty 
with the realities of handicapped 
persons and develop a nucleus of 
faculty members who have inten- 
sive experience with the innova- 
tion of the mainstreaming 
concepts. S 

Laurel Bennett is an editor in VCU's Office of 
University Publications. 

Photograph}/ by Bob Strong 

1 T i^^uw 

I >m/ ^m "^ "^ Wf ^ >Mif >mf y^^ 

Reflections from Cairo 

Dr. Robert Armour, professor of 
Englisli and Fulbright Award re- 
cipient, is spending the 1981-82 
academic year in Cairo teacfiing 
American literature to university 
students. In tfiis article he re- 
counts some of his experiences 
with the Egyptian system of 
higher education. 

By Robert Armour 

Images from my experience 
with Egyptian universities 
crowd my mind the way Cairo 
citizens crowd municipal buses: 
they jostle each other, fill the 
space to capacity, and then seem 
to mesh into a harmonious, but 
not entirely understandable, 

These images capture both the 
pleasurable and frustrating as- 
pects of teaching in Egypt: a siz- 
able delegation of students which 
welcomed me at the steps of the 
classroom building the first day 

and guided me to the proper 
classroom; dusty classrooms and 
a piece of plyboard painted black 
to serve as a chalkboard; a class of 
graduate students huddled to- 
gether in a narrow room without 
student desks and illuminated 
only by a pair of low wattage 
fluorescent lights; the library for 
these students with fewer than 
5,000 books on English and Amer- 
ican literature; graduate students 
surrounding me to ask if I could 
possibly add a course in American 
literature for them; the student 
who came all the way to campus 
just to tell me that she was unable 
to attend class because her hus- 
band had invited guests for din- 
ner and she had to stay home to 

These contradictory images of 
the Egyptian educational system 
are part of a history that began in 
970 A.D. when Moslem scholars 

established a school at Al Azhar 
Mosque to teach the Koran and 
theology. The university, now the 
oldest continuing one in the 
world, incubated a national re- 
spect for education that has per- 
sisted despite wars, foreign occu- 
pations, famine, and poverty. 
Today increasing numbers of 
young Egyptians seek higher edu- 
cation as a means of advancing 
themselves through business, 
industry, or government to im- 
proved social and economic posi- 

To satisfy this growing demand, 
higher education through the 
doctoral degree was made free for 
everyone as part of the more gen- 
eral revolution that began when 
the Egyptians overthrew King 
Farouk and demanded the British 
troops leave. There are now 11 
state-supported universities en- 
rolling over 510,000 students 
(1979 figures). These universities 
are supplemented by Al Azhar, 
which has remained a private 

center with an international repu- 
tation for the study of Islam, and 
the American University in Cairo, 
which offers its international stu- 
dent body an American-style cur- 
riculum. National policy encour- 
ages all secondary students with 
good grades to attend one of the 
universities, and, as a result, the 
universities continue to experi- 
ence awesome growth. The two 
largest state universities, Cairo 
University and Ain Shams Uni- 
versity, enroll nearly 100,000 stu- 
dents each. At times classrooms 
are filled beyond capacity, but 
somehow education proceeds. 

The faculty I have met carry 
impressive credentials. Most have 
been educated in Europe or the 
United States and have a lengthy 
list of publications. They are woe- 
fully underpaid and must take 
teaching positions at several uni- 
versities in order to earn a livable 
wage. The autonomy they enjoy 
in the classroom is amazing by 
U.S. standards. They teach what 
they want when they want to 
teach it, and students do not ar- 
gue or even question too closely. 

Students expect to be lectured 
at and rarely engage in discussion 
with each other or the professor. 
Usually they pay close attention 
to the lecture, but sometimes the 
chatter level elevates. They are 
not experienced at note taking 
because their professors normally 
sell them printed copies of the 
lecture notes. The sales help sup- 
plement the professors' low sala- 

For most students the entire 
course grade will be determined 
by a three-hour examination at 
the end of the year. The students' 
goal is to memorize everything 
they have been told in class so 
they can recite it exactly on the 
examination. When I announced I 
would not sell my notes, my deci- 
sion was met with dismay. I ex- 
plained that I would help them 
learn to take notes, but at times 
this becomes an exercise in dicta- 

In Egypt, textbooks create spe- 
cial problems. Before deciding on 

reading lists for my courses I had 
to go around Cairo to major book- 
stores to discover which books 
would be available in large quan- 
tities. I often had to take a second 
or third choice, but I was able to 
put together decent book lists for 
most of the classes. Many of these 
books, especially the plays, have 
been printed locally, which makes 
the cost reasonable. When a text- 
book is not available in quantity, 
professors make copies of a for- 
eign edition and sell them to the 

I am teaching at two entirely 
different universities. At AI Azhar 
I teach 50 senior English majors 
on the men's campus. The fact 
that they chose to attend a Mos- 
lem university probably means 
they are religiously and socially 
more conservative than students 
at other universities, but I have 
found them eager to learn about 
the western way of life, including 
Christianity. At no point have I 
sensed any reluctance to encoun- 
ter new or foreign ideas, and stu- 
dents are quite willing to explain 
Islam to me when I try to make 
religious comparisons. If my 
classes contain any of the ex- 
tremely conservative Moslem 
brotherhood responsible for much 
of the political unrest, they have 
not surfaced. Actually, despite 
recent headlines, Egypt has a long 
tradition of religious tolerance, 
and roughly 10 percent of the 
population is Christian. Al Azhar 
students expect to live in har- 
mony with people who hold dif- 
ferent religious views and greet 
their only Christian professor 
with warmth and friendliness. 

At Al Azhar I conduct two two- 
hour classes with undergraduates: 
the modern novel and modern 
drama. In the novel course I am 
teaching three novels for the year: 
Henry James' A Portrait of A Lady, 
James Joyce's A Portrait of the Art- 
ist as a Young Man, and Ernest 
Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises. I 
was surprised to discover I was 
expected to cover only three 
novels for the year, but the com- 
bination of the language, the 
difficulty of the first two novels, 
and the heavy course load stu- 
dents undertake does force a slow 

pace. A typical student takes ten 
two-hour courses, which limits 
the time devoted to any one sub- 
ject. I spend most class periods 
reading and analyzing specific 
passages from the novels. 

In the drama course I expect to 
cover four plays: Henrik Ibsen's 
The Wild Duck, G. B. Shaw's Major 
Barbara, Eugene O'Neill's The 
Hairy Ape, and Tennessee Wil- 
liams' A Streetcar Named Desire. 
Since plays are shorter and usu- 
ally more easily understood, stu- 
dents do not appear to have the 
same difficulty with them that 
they experience with the novels. 

Even though these students are 
fourth-year English majors, the 
English language is still some- 
thing of a problem for them. They 
complain about the lengthy read- 
ing assignments and often ask me 
to lecture more slowly so that 
they can laboriously take down 
every word. They also ask me to 
read more slowly from the texts 
when I am giving analysis. Their 
use of oral English is better than 
their reading and writing, and 
during informal conversations 
they understand me perfectly 
unless I use an American expres- 
sion. They are eager to learn new 
words and quick to remember 

The Egyptian system of higher 
education is steeped in the British 
tradition which accounts for some 
of the best and the worst of the 
system. On one hand, students 
have a firm background in British 
literature. They have read 
Wordsworth, Jane Austen, and 
Shakespeare. They know about 
the Renaissance and understand 
the concepts of Romanticism. 
They have been well exposed to 
traditions of our literary heritage, 
and here they have the advantage 
over their American peers. Of 
course, since the reading pace of 
the class is slow, they have not 
been able to read as much of this 
heritage as they think they have. 

On the other hand, students 
know nothing about American 
literature, which has been almost 
totally ignored, except for a few 
modern writers such as Ernest 

Hemingway or Tennessee Wil- 
liams. In my class of seniors not 
one had heard of Nathaniel 
Hawthorne and only one had 
read Mark Twain. Herman 
Melville and William Faulkner are 
unknown. I was delighted to find 
these students' knowledge of 
British literature, but I wish it 
were more balanced with read- 
ings in American literature and 
history. Actually, I enjoy describ- 
ing to them the work of important 
American writers, and I some- 
times proselyte among faculty 
and administrators to encourage 
them to include a few American 
writers in the curriculum. 

In addition to these undergrad- 
uates, I am also working with a 
handful of graduate students. 
Since the graduates began classes 

later than the undergraduates, I 
have not yet started formal 
classes with them and am not 
entirely sure just what needs they 
have. They seem eager for what- 
ever I am willing to teach and 
often come by after I have 
finished my other classes to sit 
and talk. I probably can best serve 
these students by discussing re- 
search methods but, since the 
libraries are not designed for 
American-style research, I may 
not be able to give them much. As 
the English department at Al 
Azhar is small and has only a few 
full-time professors, the graduate 
students sometimes have 
difficulty finding faculty to advise 
them on research projects. There- 
fore, almost all the graduate stu- 
dents are trying to find scholar- 
ships to Britain or America to 
finish their studies. 

One of the academic problems 
with many of the undergraduates 

in Egypt is the lack of aim among 
the students. One day I asked my 
seniors what they intended to do 
once they graduated, and very 
few of them had any idea. One or 
two mumbled something about 
wanting to teach English and 
several talked about working for a 
travel agency, but nothing 
seemed definite. One of the rea- 
sons for the uncertainty is that 
mandatory military service faces 
all the men, except those who are 
only sons and, therefore, exempt. 
The rest face about 13 months of 
service, which they expect to find 
boring and pointless. Students are 
guaranteed jobs by the govern- 
ment once they finish college and 
military service, but if they de- 
pend on the government for jobs 
the pay will be amazingly low and 
the work routine. As seniors they 

do not view their financial pros- 
pects as good and know their 
opportunities for marriage and a 
stable family must be delayed for 

All of this affects students' atti- 
tudes toward school. They feel an 
urgency to do well on the exami- 
nations because only the top stu- 
dents will obtain higher paying 
jobs (a situation not unlike the 
American one), but the substance 
of the courses does not appear to 
have any immediacy for them. 

I find a complete contrast in 
conditions a few miles away at 
the campus of the Faculty 
(School) of Tongues of Ain Shams 
University. The facilities are 
among the worst I have ever ex- 
perienced at a university. The 
building is a former elementary 
school given to a high school once 
the younger children wore it out. 
When the teenagers had done all 
they could to it, the authorities 
gave it to Ain Shams to use as a 
satellite campus. It reminds me of 
some of the buildings used at RPI 
in the early 1960s, and I remem- 
ber it was the spirit of education 
that counted then and not the 

At this campus, the students 
believe they are among the best at 
Ain Shams and take considerable 
pride in their education. Those I 
have met are bright, attractive 
people and willing to learn. Every 
class period I have several stu- 
dents drop by to sit in for what- 
ever free time they have, even 
though they are not enrolled for 
credit and probably took the class 
last year. Those who are enrolled 
impress me with their dedication, 
though they too, like students 
anywhere, complain about the 
amount of work. Most have jobs 
during the day and take classes 
four nights a week. They are in 
the first year of a two-year mas- 
ter's program; they take classes 
the first year and write a paper in 
the second. They are training to 
be teachers or translators and, 
after the first year, must decide 
which track of the program they 
will pursue. 

These students have an excel- 
lent command of the English lan- 
guage, and I lecture and read at 
the same rate I would in the 
United States. They appear capa- 
ble of reading a play a week and a 
novel every couple of weeks. I am 
impressed with the depth of ques- 
tions, and they will politely chal- 
lenge an idea and even question 
the professor's point of view occa- 

Again I conduct two two-hour 
courses each week. One is called 
"Culture" and is supposed to deal 
with great intellectual trends of 
the western world. The lack of a 
good library has handicapped my 
construction of the course, but we 
have considered some major 
ideas, such as the domination of 
the church during the Middle 
Ages and the importance of the 
printing press from the Middle 
Ages through our own time. We 
focus on ideas that change or 
control thinking and intellectual 
freedom. The second course is a 
survey of literary criticism. The 
department dictates the entire 
grade for each course rests on the 
final examination. 

In addition, I am conducting a 
biweekly seminar in research 
methods with the same group of 
students. For most of them it will 
be their first attempt at a major 
research project, so I am provid- 
ing them with basic information 
about selecting a topic, working 
from an outline, and writing foot- 
notes and a bibliography. Stu- 
dents will be severely handi- 
capped by the poor library 
facilities, both at this campus and 
in the rest of the city. Their grade 
for this one-credit course will 
depend on a research paper. 

These students' general knowl- 
edge of culture is good, and it is 
possible, and even desirable, to 
go beyond feeding them informa- 
tion and suggest controversial 
interpretations of history and 
literature. They are capable of 
thinking for themselves as well as 
any master's level students I have 

The time spent teaching in 
Egypt has been a period of per- 
sonal growth for me. I have not 
learned tolerance for poor teach- 

ing conditions, which harm teach- 
ing effectiveness rather than 
building character. 1 am learning 
to work without proper facilities, 
textbooks, or libraries, though I 
do not accept these deficiencies 
here any more than I would at 
VCU. However, it is good for me 
to talk to students with different 
cultural perspectives and different 
educational preparation. Through 
them I am reaffirming my faith in 
the importance of basic education 
and in our cultural heritage. I am 
finding my own place in a culture 
that built monuments to the gods 
and libraries for men thousands 
of years before there was a place 
called Virginia. The director of the 
Fulbright program in Egypt be- 
lieves deeply that the most impor- 
tant value of the year here is its 
impact on the professor. 

At times, however, I get a 
glimpse of a higher, less personal 
value. Several weeks ago while 
lecturing on the art of Henry 
James, I used the term "central 
intelligence" to refer to James' 
technique of the narrator. The 
more than usually puzzled faces 
in front of me told me that I was 
not getting through to my stu- 
dents. Finally one of them asked 
me if this expression meant that 
the narrator was a spy, and it 
slowly dawned on me that to 
these students this phrase made 
up the first two words in the 
name of an omnipresent U.S. 
agency, about which my students 
had heard far more than thev had 
ever heard of the novels of Henry 
James. On reflection, I came to 
realize that the Fulbright presence 
here can quietly demonstrate a 
different face of America and 
show that in the United States the 
word intelligence does not always 
conjure images of spies, guns, 
and plots to overthrow the gov- 
ernment. And as an extra bonus, 
the students may even learn a bit 
about Henry James. C? 

Uiustratioti by lay Johnson 

Who owns the sun? 

The sun. The only source of 
free energy to which no one 
person or large corporation can 
make a private claim. Yet re- 
corded legal claims for its private 
use have been made for over 600 

American law today concerning 
access to sunlight makes no provi- 
sion for solar energy. Under cur- 
rent legislation there is no blanket 
protection for a solar energy user 
whose house or collector is sud- 
denly blocked by an adjoining 
building or fast-growing tree. 

A case currently being appealed 
in Wisconsin is a typical example. 
The plaintiff installed an $18,000 
solar heating system in his home. 
Subsequently the owner of the 
adjacent lot began construction of 
a house which would, because of 
its height and proximity, cause a 
shadow to fall on the collectors 
during certain hours of the win- 
ter. The consequence of such con- 
struction would be a loss of 
efficiency and possible fracture of 
the system due to freezing. 

The plaintiff used three argu- 
ments from current nuisance 
laws, the only ones applicable, in 
support of an injunction to re- 
strain the defendant from con- 
structing his building. The courts 
rejected all three and concluded 
that the plaintiff had no right to 
light across adjoining land under 
any circumstances for the purpose 
of operating a solar energy sys- 

This case demonstrates the 
complexities and deficiencies in 
current legislation for users of 
solar energy. Without appropriate 
legislation protecting their sys- 
tems, builders of solar homes 
often find their collectors are be- 
ing blocked from their most valu- 
able commodity — a southern ex- 

Since the 1970s, as a result of 
the need to find alternative 
sources of energy for the increas- 
ing costs of traditional fuels, the 
harnessing of solar energy has 

become one important option. 
One study has estimated that 
escalating fuel prices and govern- 
mental inducements are expected 
to boost the use of solar equip- 
ment in the residential control 
market to more than 50 percent 
by 1995. 

Technically the design of a solar 
building is relatively simple. Solar 
design is often divided into active 
and passive categories. Passive 
design refers to buildings with 
large southern exposures, few if 
any windows facing north, and 
no mechanical devices or collec- 
tors. Active solar design refers to 
the use of solar panels or collec- 
tors to warm substances which 
help heat a building or provide 
hot water. 

No matter which system is be- 
ing used, the house or solar col- 
lector must receive a certain 
amount of sunlight to operate 
efficiently. Thus the issue of solar 
access is raised, including an indi- 
vidual's right to ensure the receiv- 
ing of solar energy across another 
person's land. 

The crucial issue in solar access 


law is not who owns the sun, but 
who controls the last few miles, 
or even the last few hundred feet, 
through which solar energy must 
pass before it strikes the ground 
or structures on the ground. Solar 
energy which reaches people's 
real estate comes down vertically 
through their airspace and la- 
tently across the property of an- 
other individual. 

This situation raises several 
legal issues. First, do the owners 
of a parcel of land have property 
rights to the solar energy coming 
down vertically through their 
own airspace and, if so, can they 
protect those rights from instru- 
sion by others? Second, does the 
owner of a solar home, active or 
passive, have any property rights 
to solar energy received latently 
across a neighbor's real estate? If 
so, can those property rights be 
protected? If not, are there means 
to acquire those property rights? 

The foundation of two legal 
doctrines which address these 
issues was first established in 
Britain and had become part of 
common law by the 13th century. 

"The crucial issue in solar 
access law is who controls 
the last few miles, or even 
the last few hundred feet, 
through which solar energy 
must pass before it strikes 
the ground." 

The first, cujus est solum ejus est 
usque ad caelum et ad inferno ("he 
who owns the soil also owns to 
the heavens and to the depths") 
provides individual landowners 
with control over the vertical 
column of airspace directly over 
their real estate. Likewise a per- 
son's neighbors have full control 
of their airspace, including actions 
that would cut off passage of solar 
energy through that airspace. 

Another law, the doctrine of 
ancient lights, is occasionally cited 
for attaining solar access rights in 
the United States. The doctrine 
allows for the creation of ease- 
ments (legal recognition of one 

party's interest in the use of an- 
other's property) for a reasonable 
amount of air and light. 

Under this doctrine if an indi- 
vidual had obtained light or air 
across another individual's real 
estate for a specified period of 
time (the courts established the 
time period as 20 years in 1623), 
the former had obtained a prop- 
erty right to the continual receipt 
of that light. The individual could 
also prevent neighbors from un- 
dertaking activity that would 
block its passage. 

The last major British develop- 
ment in this area was the Right to 
Light Act of 1959. Since a solar 
easement required the uninter- 
rupted receipt of light for 20 
years, one measure to prevent 
such an easement from being 
obtained was erecting a wall or 
building to block the passage of 
light. To avoid indiscriminate 
construction, the British required 
only the registration of a plan to 
erect a structure in order to pre- 
vent an easement. 

American legislation on this 
subject has generally followed the 
British common law of cujus est 
solum. Most states have rejected 
the doctrine of ancient lights. This 
rejection is based partially on the 
belief that the doctrine would 
impede the future growth and 
development of cities and towns. 

An example of this thinking 
was apparent in an 1838 case. In 
that case the court held "the En- 
glish doctrine on the subject of 
lights . . . cannot be applied in 
the growing cities and villages of 
this country without working the 
most mischevious consequences." 

Twenty years later, in another 
case, the court added, "To adopt 
(this doctrine) would greatly in- 
terfere with and impede rapid 
changes and improvements which 
are constantly going on." 

One of the most frequently 
cited cases concerning the rejec- 
tion of the ancient lights doctrine 
was the confrontation in 1959 
between the Eden Roc and Fon- 
tainbleau Hotels in Miami Beach. 
The two hotels were built on ad- 

joining pieces of real estate. The 
Fontainbleau announced plans for 
a 14-story addition, which would 
shade the sunbathing and swim- 
ming pool area of the Eden Roc in 
the afternoon. The owners of the 
Eden Roc sought an injunction to 
prevent construction. 

The courts rejected the suit and 
held there was no legal basis to 
claim a property right to the pas- 
sage of light and air from across 
adjacent land. The court action 
nullified the ancient lights doc- 
trine which it said had no stand- 
ing in the United States' system of 
property rights with regard to 

"There are as many new 
approaches to solar access 
law as there are states." 

While the courts rejected, on 
the one hand, the inherent prop- 
erty right to solar access across 
another's real estate, more recent 
legislation has devised a method 
for individuals to rent solar en- 
ergy. In developing this concept 
through a series of legal briefs, 
the courts have held that property 
rights to airspace are separable 
from property rights to the real 
estate beneath the airspace and 
may be transferred (conveyed) to 
another person. 

As a result of this separable and 
conveyable feature, a number of 
buildings have been constructed 
in airspace leased from the owner 
of the airspace who also happens 
to own the land under it. In a 
1941 case, for example, the owner 
of a small building received an 
annual payment for the convey- 
ance of light and air from the 
owners of a larger office building 
which surrounded the small 
building on three sides. 

Recently the courts not only 
recognized the legal ability to 
separate and convey airspace, but 
also held that it was subject to 
property taxes. 

Recognizing that individuals 
can legally obtain the property 
rights in another's airspace is an 
important development for solar 
energy users which can some- 
times ensure that they receive an 


adequate amount of sun for their 
solar homes. This assurance is, 
however, only one small part of 
larger legal considerations. The 
problem of changing the laws, or 
creating new ones, to protect ac- 
cess to the sun is far more com- 
plex. There are as many new ap- 
proaches to the law as there are 
states, and judicial reviews are 
both time-consuming and expen- 

Current bills applicable to solar 
access range from zoning restric- 
tions, to automatically granting 
solar rights to someone with a 
collector, to vegetation control. 

Some bills that would automati- 
cally grant solar easements to 
individuals with solar collectors 
come into direct conflict with the 
historic development of property 
rights in the United States. A bill 
introduced in Minnesota, for ex- 
ample, would hold the party 

erecting a structure that blocks 
light liable for damages. The total 
liability paid to a solar user would 
equal an amount triple the cost of 
installing an alternative heating 

Another category of legislation 
goes beyond structures and pro- 
vides protection against naturally 
growing objects, such as trees, 
from blocking a solar collector. 

Colorado has considered legis- 
lation of this type that would pro- 
hibit shading solar collectors be- 
tween 9 am and 3 pm unless such 
shade already existed at the time 
the solar collector was installed. 
In New Mexico, a bill has been 
proposed that would disrupt the 
building of highrises and other 
structures in favor of the solar 
energy user. 

Some laws under consideration 
imply a reassignment of property 
rights in airspace to the owner of 
a solar collector without a recipro- 
cal payment to the other property 
owner. Such reversals of the tradi- 

tional approach to property rights 
could, according to some critics, 
cause a substantial decrease in the 
value of the nonsolar property. 
The number of claims, which 
today is relatively small, will grow 
as more individuals build solar 
homes in an attempt to beat the 
high cost of other forms of en- 
ergy. The administrative tasks of 
individual states, cities, and mu- 
nicipalities in resolving these 
claims will continue to be burden- 
some because of the inherent 
conflicts of interest. At the same 
time, the conflicts present a chal- 
lenge to city planners and 
legislators. O 

Adapted from an original monograph, "Access 
to Solar Energy: Who Owns the Sun?" by Dr. 
James N. Wetzel, assistant professor of eco- 
nomics. Editing by Laurel Bennett. 

PlKtography by Marianne Sullivan 


Gypsy marriage: 

an exercise 

in economics 

By Linda Shields 

In order to participate fully in 
the community or gypsy 
group, one must be married. 

Among gypsies the status of 
individuals in society is directly 
related to their status as family 
members and the degree to which 
they fulfill their sexual roles. 
There is little value in remaining 
unmarried for it signifies a per- 
sonality disorder and an inability 
or unwillingness to participate in 
community life. 

Gypsies have definite notions 
regarding the ideal marriage. 
However, they do not subscribe 
to the traditional American view 
of marriage which equates mar- 
riage with enduring love. Rather 
gypsies regard marriage as an 
arrangement between families, 
preferably related, for the pur- 
pose of propagating the group. 

In most cases marriage involves 
two cousins. Ideally marriage 
should take place between second 
cousins, half cousins, and third 
cousins. Matrimony between first 
cousins is discouraged but not 

Tribal considerations also play a 
dominant role in selecting a mar- 
riage partner. Members of a par- 
ticular group marry within that 
group whenever possible. The 
next best situation is a marriage 
between cousins of different 
tribes. If all else fails, an alliance 
will be made between members of 
different tribes. 

For gypsies it is extremely im- 

portant that kinship ties are main- 
tained. Frequently a marriage is a 
means of establishing ties that 
previously did not exist. Kinship 
in gypsy society is the basis for 
cooperation, aid, security, and 
economic well being. Out of this 
framework flows all activity. 

As for the actual process of 
selecting a marriage partner, it is 
quite detailed. Theoretically an 
individual has no right to partici- 
pate in choosing a prospective 
spouse. However a couple has the 
right to refuse the marriage. In 
selecting a wife for their son a 
family's primary consideration is 
the status of the girl's family. The 
prospective bride's family is eval- 
uated on its reputation for raising 
clever, honest daughters. 

A family's search for a bride for 
their son occurs when the boy is 
between the ages of 13 and 20. 
His family considers all families 
within its tribe with girls who 
might be eligible for marriage. 
The criteria for a wife are fairly 
inflexible and include the position 
of the girl's family within the par- 
ticular group; the reputation of 
the girl's family for adhering to 
gypsy law; the history of the fam- 
ily for producing good, honest, 
and faithful women; and the char- 
acteristics displayed by the girl. Is 
she clever, forceful, and cunning? 
Will she be able to assume major 
responsibilities for supporting the 

If these requirement are 
satisfied, negotiations will begin 
to determine the price (daw) a 
boy's family must pay the bride's 

family for the girl they wish their 
son to marry. Preliminary activi- 
ties are conducted by a friend of 
the boy's family who serves as an 
intermediary. This individual will 
usually visit the girl's father to 
obtain consent for the union. At 
this time the intermediary will 
also try to get some idea of the 
price set bv the girl's father. The 
intermediary does not bargain or 
try to persuade the girl's father to 
consent; rather, his role is that of 
a reporter. He gathers informa- 
tion that prevents the boy's family 
from enduring unnecessary em- 
barrassment by being turned 
down by the girl's family and 
gives the boy's family some idea 
of the amount of the daw. If it is 
set too high, the family might not 
be able to pay and hence the mar- 
riage would not take place. 

The price that must be paid for 
the bride fluctuates and follows 
the principles of supply and de- 
mand. The girl's father has the 
prerogative of setting the price. 
Asking too little would be an in- 
sult to the girl while asking too 
much could prevent a suitable 
marriage. In setting the price the 
father considers the status of his 
family, the reputation of his 




daughter, and the overall eco- 
nomic condition of each family. 

According to Anne Sutherland, 
a noted gypsiologist, a virgin 
from a well-known fortune-telling 
family can expect $5,000. Poorer 
and less prestigious families can 
expect $1,500 to $2,000 for their 
daughters. Women who have 
dubious reputations or who have 
been married previously attract 

"Gypsies regard marriage 
as an arrangement between 
families, preferably related, 
for the purpose of propagat- 
ing the group." 

Paying the daw can be avoided 
through the exchange of women 
between two families. While such 
exchanges occur occasionally, 
most are not successful. Their 
failure is largely attributed to the 
fact that a girl loses status when 
no daro is paid. As a result she is 
subject to possible mistreatment 
by her husband and his family. 
Continued tension of this nature 
will bring about dissolution of the 

Once there is a definite indica- 
tion that the girl's father is agreea- 
ble to the marriage and the 
amount of the daro, the betrothal 
(tumnimos) takes place. The best 
description of this ritual appears 
in the work of Rena Gotten Groper, 
another noted gypsiologist. 

When they ask for a wife, the 
father and mother take several 
other good friends — people 
who can be trusted — with 
them. They go and get together 
and bring a gallon of wine and 
some cold lunch to eat so that 
the both sides will get along. 
Then, the father has nothing 
else to say for the time being. 
The friends do the talking. 

The girl has no right to re- 
main where the company is. 
She must not listen. She must 
feel upset, not happy. If she 
wanted to get married, she 
would not be a good girl, and 
the parents would not take her 
for their son. Her mother 

makes the daughter seem bro- 
kenhearted. She even pinches 
her to make her cry. 

The groom is not there. Prob- 
ably the boy does not know 
anything about it. 

Then the friends of the boy's 
father talk: "Well, I brought you 
here a good friend of mine. You 
know him. He comes from 
good people. You know how it 
is. He has a son. You got a 
daughter. They get married, so 
it is no sense if you do not let 
your daughter get married. 
They must build a home some- 

The father or mother should 
refuse, and at times they do. 
Sometimes they say, "My 
daughter is too young. I can't 
get her married." The mother 
says she is not feeling well and 
she needs the daughter to help 
her. Or she says they must get 
a daughter-in-law for their own 
son or she will be sitting alone. 

Then the other side keeps on 
talking. They must say, "But 
what can you do with a daugh- 
ter? Sons come first. You must 
look for the best place for the 
daughter. You have a chance to 
sell her and get money. Then 
you can buy a daughter-in-law. 
She will have a good place and 
enough to eat and a place to 
sleep . . ." 

If the father says the daugh- 
ter can go, sometimes the 
mother refuses. Then the 
friends say, "Take your wife on 
the side and see if you can 
bring back a good word." 

The importance of the parental 
function during the betrothal pro- 
cedure cannot be underestimated. 
For the girl it is the last and most 
important act her parents will 


perform. Following the marriage 
ceremony she is no longer an 
integral part of their household. 
The family's responsibility for 
guarding her honor and virginity 
ends with marriage, at which time 
the girl becomes the keeper of her 
own honor. 

The marriage arrangement also 
places a tremendous responsibil- 
ity on the boy's family. The family 
must select his wife, pay the daro, 
and live with its decision since the 
girl becomes a part of their house- 
hold. If discord occurs and the 
marriage fails, often the boy's 
parents are held accountable by 
the girl's parents and the commu- 

During the betrothal there are 
some opportunities for the girl to 
change her mind. The bride- 
groom's father presents the 
bride's father with a gift for the 
girl, usually a headscarf (diklo). If 
the bride wishes to cancel the 
wedding, she returns the diklo 
through an intermediary. Like- 
wise, the daro is also returned. 

Following negotiations for the 
daro and the betrothal, the wed- 
ding takes place. It is a festive 
occasion and frequently lasts for 
three days. Whereas in America 
the family of the bride bears the 
bulk of wedding expenses, among 
gypsies the groom's family bears 
most of the cost. Lavish food is 
prepared, and much liquor is 
consumed. In short, nothing is 
spared for the wedding. 

Several interesting procedures 
are carried out as part of the wed- 
ding process, one of which relates 
to the method of determining a 
bride's virginity. On the second 
night after the wedding ceremony 
the bride and groom sleep with 
each other for the first time. For 
this occasion the girl must wear a 
white nightgown. The next morn- 
ing the gown is examined by the 
groom's family. If there is blood 
on it, a celebration is held by the 
bride's family. Others attend to 
show respect and to acknowledge 
the family for ensuring the 
daughter's honor and purity. 

If the bride is not a virgin, the 


wedding is still valid. However, 
repercussions are felt by the bride 
in her relationship with the 
groom's family. The family will 
not respect her as much as they 
would if she were a virgin, nor 
will they feel she is a suitable 
wife. In fact the stigma of not 
being a virgin at the time of mar- 
riage will follow her for the rest of 
her life. Her parents will also lose 
status in gypsy society. 

Once a woman is married, she 
is distinguished from unmarried 
women by the headscarf (diklo). 
Although she receives the diklo 
when she becomes engaged, the 
woman does not wear it until the 
actual wedding. 

During the ceremony the diklo 
is put on a stick and placed in the 
middle of a circle composed of 
unmarried female guests. They 
perform a dance around the diklo 
and the bride reluctantly enters 
the middle of the circle and be- 
gins weeping. This behavior is 
traditional and is not necessarily a 
result of overwhelming sadness. 
Following the dance the bride is 
taken away, and the diklo is 
placed on her head by the 
women. Once the scarf is on her 
head, the girl is considered mar- 

Another significant phase of the 
marriage ceremony involves 
bringing the bride home (zeita). 
This ritual marks the bride's tran- 
sition from her parents' house- 
hold to the home of her in-laws. 
She is expected to work diligently 
for her mother-in-law. Initially 
she has little status with her in- 
laws and must cater to them and 
perform any household tasks 
required of her. Only after the 
birth of her first child can she 
begin to participate as a member 
of the family. Her status increases 
with the birth of more children 
and eventually she is accepted as 
a member of her husband's fam- 

As in the rest of society, di- 
vorce, adultery, incest, and elope- 
ment occur among gypsies. The 
methods of dealing with such 

dysfunctions in the marital rela- 
tionship are, however, innova- 

For example, divorce is settled 
by a trial called a krif roinani. The 
trial is conducted by adult gypsies 
who listen to arguments of both 
complainants and render a deci- 
sion based on the facts presented. 
There are no lawyers or written 
legal codes. More importantly, 
there is no viable appeals process. 
A decision from a kris roinani is 

In a divorce situation the kris 
romani attempts to render a swift 
decision. The main concern is 
reaching an agreement on the 

"In setting the price that 
must be paid for his daugh- 
ter, a father considers the 
status of his family, the rep- 
utation of his daughter, and 
each family's economic con- 

amount of the daro to be returned. 
In some cases reaching a decision 
is difficult because the families 
will blame each other for the fail- 
ure of the marriage. 

Several types of marriages are 
not allowed by gypsies. For exam- 
ple, a wedding between a gypsy 
and non-gypsy is forbidden since 
gypsies believe strongly in main- 
taining boundaries between them- 
selves and outsiders. To gypsies, 
outsiders are impure, polluted, 
and immoral. They view non-gyp- 
sies as persons to be exploited 
and manipulated for the economic 
well-being of the group. 

A marriage between a gypsy 
and a non-gypsy can result in 
permanent expulsion from the 
group. If a female marries an out- 
sider, her entire family can be 
rejected. A male who marries a 
non-gypsy will suffer a similar 
fate. His family, however, is al- 
lowed to remain in the group. 

Incestuous alliances are also 
forbidden. One of the worst 
crimes in gypsy society is for a 
father-in-law to make sexual de- 
mands on his daughter-in-law. 

Likewise an uncle-niece union is 
forbidden. When children result 
from such relationships they are 
immediately given to the local 
welfare department for adoption. 

Considering all of the events 
that must take place to ensure a 
proper marriage among gypsies, 
the study of marriage in gypsy 
culture offers an opportunity to 
analyze that society's values, be- 
havioral tendencies, and taboos. 
Perhaps no other ritual brings 
together so many unique charac- 
teristics which have played a large 
part in setting gypsies apart from 
other cultures. S 

Lmda Shields is the former director of the 
university's Human Resources Training Pro- 

Illustration by David Poole 



bad news 
for researchers 

By Celia Luxmoore 

*' ^k very uncertain time" is 

J. \. how Dr. John Salley 
describes the Reagan administra- 
tion's emphasis on federal budget 
cuts and their possible effects on 
the university's research grant 

"But one thing is certain," said 
Salley, vice-president for research 
and dean of the School of Gradu- 
ate Studies, "if we level out, ev- 
eryone else will too." 

Research awards at VCU during 
fiscal year 1980-81 totaled $28.74 
million. Since 1974 research fund- 
ing at the university has more 
than doubled. 

The 1980-81 total includes con- 
tributions from all sources to the 
direct costs of research such as 
salaries, equipment, and travel 
funds. It also includes training 
and grant contracts. To the total 
another 54 percent is added to 
cover the indirect costs of carry- 
ing out research programs, such 

as clerical help and maintenance 

The $28.74 million awarded to 
the university during the past 
fiscal year places VCU 76th in the 
National Science Foundation's 
listing of the top 100 universities 
in the nation involved in scientific 
and medical research. "We're in a 
very prestigious group," said 

Many federal dollars go to basic 
research, and Salley is concerned 
that this country has a serious 
problem with the long-range im- 
plications of cutting research 
funds. "Although dollar figures 
have increased over the last sev- 
eral administrations, the growth 
of research has been reduced by 
inflation," said Salley. "There 
have been papers in scientific 
magazines showing a correlation 

between national productivity 
and national investment in basic 

As for the likelihood of the 
private sector picking up the re- 
search tab, Salley thinks it is 
highly unlikely while frustrating 
regulations exist. "There are 
dozens and dozens of rules and 
regulations which have to be 
met," he said, "and there is cer- 
tainly room for deregulation." 

Salley considers the federal 
government the appropriate agent 
to support basic research and 
finds it infeasible to increase de- 
fense spending and cut research. 
As a rationale he cited the long- 
term dependency of defense on 
basic research. "We will suffer ten 
years down the road, and defense 
will suffer, too," he said. "Re- 
search has a national and often an 
international impact." ?J 

Celia Luxmoore is an editor in VCU's Office of 
University Pi(bUcations. 



$ million 






$28.74 m 
$25.28 m 
'$24.05 m 

$19.02 m 

$16.09 m 
$15.04 m 

$12.54 m 

Fiscal year ending 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 


Fiscal year 1980-81 

Department of Education 


$ 777,419 


















Department of Energy 

Department of Interior 

Deoartment of Labor 

Environmental Protection Agency. . 

Health and Human Services 

National Aeronautics 

and Space Administration 

National Education Association .... 

National Science Foundation 


Veterans Administration 

Cities or counties 



Other universities 





Universitv News 

Tissue transfer 

A surgical procedure for recon- 
struction of the breast without use 
of synthetic implants following 
partial or complete mastectomy 
has been developed in a collabo- 
rative effort by plastic surgeons at 
VCU and at St. Joseph's Hospital 
in Atlanta. 

Dr. Michael Scheflan, assistant 
professor of plastic surgery at 
VCU, and Dr. Carl Hartrampf, 
associate clinical professor of plas- 
tic surgery at Emory University in 
Atlanta, performed the operation 
on 16 patients, and have in- 
structed other surgeons who then 
performed the procedure success- 
fully on approximately 80 patients 
in other medical centers. 

The operation has been per- 
formed eight times by Scheflan 
and surgeons of the Division of 
Plastic Surgery at the university's 
Medical College of Virginia Hospi- 

The surgeons use fatty tissue 
from the abdomen to reconstruct 
the breast. Removal of the fatty 
tissue results in an improved 
waistline as an additional benefit 
of the operation. 

"Most mastectomy patients 
suffer a body image problem that 
is improved by breast reconstruc- 
tion. The new operation has dou- 
ble benefits in improving body 
image because it tightens the 
waistline and restores the breast 
simultaneously," said Scheflan. 

Scheflan noted the operation 
evolved after a patient, facing a 
conventional reconstructive oper- 
ation using a silicone implant, 
was adamant in posing the ques- 
tion, "Why can't you take some of 
me from here (pointing to her 
abdomen) and move it here 
(pointing to the missing breast)," 
said Scheflan. 

"This is a commonly asked 
question, but she was so persua- 
sive that it set Dr. Hartrampf and 
I to investigating the possibility. 

She waited about a year and a 
half for us to research its feasibil- 

ity, and then became the first to 
receive the operation," said the 

Scheflan explained that recon- 
structing an entire breast with the 
body's own tissue had not been 
considered feasible in the past. 
Conventional reconstructive tech- 
niques use muscle tissue taken 
from the back supplemented with 
implants of silicone. 

The source of body tissue the 
doctors used for rebuilding the 
breast was exactly the source sug- 
gested by the patient. A common 
operation for improving the 
waistline, called abdominoplasty 
or "tummy tuck," yields a large 
segment of fatty tissue that is 
commonly discarded. 

"If we could maintain the blood 
supply to that tissue, we knew it 
would be possible to move it to 
the breast site and construct a 
breast from it," said Scheflan. 
They determined that blood sup- 
ply could be maintained if the 

large segment of tissue remains 
attached to the centrally-located 
rectus abdominus muscle. 

The surgeons also determined 
that the operation would not 
work for some patients who have 
had several abdominal operations 
that interrupted the normal path- 
ways of blood flow to the tissues 
of the abdomen. 

"For many patients, a more 
conventional surgical reconstruc- 
tion may be adequate," he said. 
"Not all patients are good candi- 
dates for the operation." 

Men About Town 

Richmond area businessmen, 
government officials, university 
administrators, faculty, and doc- 
tors will be featured models at the 
eighth annual "Men About 
Town," a fashion show sponsored 
by the VCU/MCV Hospitals Aux- 
iliary Friday, April 23. 

"Magic" is the theme of this 
year's show to be held in down- 
town Richmond Miller and 
Rhoads Tea Room at 7 pm. Six- 
teen male models will participate 
in the event. 

Funds raised by "Men About 
Town" will be used for the pur- 
chase of equipment for MCV Hos- 
pitals. An invitation is necessary 
to attend. Persons wishing to 
attend should call Mrs. Amir Raffi 
at (804) 740-7854. 

Clues to the 
nursing shortage 

Two university researchers have 
launched a nationwide study of 
nursing shortages in long-term 
care institutions. 

"There is an acute shortage of 
nurses throughout the country 
which varies from area to area," 
said Jerry Norville, professor 
of health administration and di- 
rector of continuing education. 
"But we see the area hardest hit is 
our nursing homes." 

"This study will examine the 


personal and organizational fac- 
tors which affect the recruitment 
and retention of professional 
nurses in long-term care facili- 
ties," said Norville, who will 
serve as principal investigator 
with Dr. Ramesh Shukla, assistant 
professor of health administra- 

The researchers will survey 
inactive nurses, graduating 
nurses, nurses in hospitals, and 
those in nursing homes nation- 
wide. From the survey they will 
recommend strategies to long- 
term care facility administrators. 

The study is funded by a 
$22,500 grant from the American 
Health Care Association. 

Seed grants 

Thirty-six VCU faculty members 
have received small research 
grants totaling $130,515. 

None of the small grants ex- 
ceeds $4,000. Most of the grants 
fund new areas of research which 
hold promise of advances in all 
disciplines of the university, in- 
cluding medicine and the arts. 

One biophysicist received 
$4,000 to investigate the continua- 
tion of injury that occurs to the 
heart following a heart attack. 
The continuing damage is 
thought to be caused by emzymes 
which attack heart muscle tissue. 

An assistant professor of psy- 
chology will use $4,000 to direct a 
program at the McGuire Veterans 
Administration Medical Center in 
Richmond that will involve 80 
families and spouses in encourag- 
ing people with high blood pres- 
sure to take their medications and 
adhere to diets. 

Another blood pressure control 
effort will be undertaken by an 
associate professor of medical and 
surgical nursing. She will teach 
aerobic dance as exercise therapy 
for women who have diagnosed 
high blood pressure. 

A nationally recognized land- 
scape artist and assistant profes- 

sor of art received $3,470 to ad- 
vance the use of deep space 
devices, color, light, and texture 
in oil and watercolor painting. He 
feels these techniques have been 
abandoned by 20th century artists 
and need to be rediscovered. 

A study of stress and stress 
management for new mothers 
will be conducted by a faculty 
member in maternal child nursing 
with a grant of $2,075. The study 
will involve teaching stress man- 
agement in pre-childbirth classes 
and the assessment of results. 

A professor of genetics will 
receive $4,000 to examine the 
ways couples choose their mates. 
He will use the VCU human ge- 
netics department's Virginia Pop- 
ulation Twin Registry, which con- 
tains 18,000 twin birth identifi- 
cations from vital records. It is the 
only registry in the United States 
based on vital records rather than 
on haphazard sampling of volun- 
teers by public appeal. He expects 
to find more genetic influence in 
mate selection than has previ- 
ously been realized. 

A fungus infection that attacks 
people in weakened condition 
and is especially prevalent in pa- 
tients with burns, diabetes, kid- 
ney transplants, or who take ste- 
roids or chemotherapy will be 
studied with $3,000 by a biologist 
who hopes to find a way of con- 
trolling the fungus. Zygomycetes. 
It is found in soil, vegetable mat- 
ter, and food, and its spores are 
always present in the mouth, 
nose, pharynx, and digestive tract 
from which they proliferate in 
seriously ill patients to invade and 
kill tissue in the brain, lungs, 
nasal passage, and kidneys. 

A microbiologist will use $4,000 
to continue work in his efforts to 
develop a Salmonella vaccine. 

A trip to the dentist may find a 
Xerox machine where the x-ray 
machine used to be if research 

confirms significant differences in 
dosages between conventional 
dental x-rays made on photo- 
graphic film and those made by a 
new technique using xerographic 
processes. An oral pathologist 
will measure radiation dose differ- 
ences between the conventional 
and xerographic x-rays and com- 
pare the clinical usefulness of the 
two systems. 

Recipients of the grants are 
selected by a 14-member Faculty 
Grants-in-Aid Committee which 
includes representatives from 
each of the university's 13 schools 
and administration. 

Literature on loan 

Readers in public and academic 
libraries throughout Virginia now 
have access to special research 
collection materials from the uni- 
versity's James Branch Cabell 

The Cabell Library recently 
concluded an agreement to house 
the library collection of the New 
Virginia Review (NVR). The NVR 
library of limited circulation mag- 
azines and small press publica- 
tions complements the literary 
holdings of Cabell Library, partic- 
ularly its collection of modern 
American poetry and its literary 

A unique feature of the agree- 
ment is that the materials of the 
NVR library, as well as selected 
materials from the special collec- 
tions holdings at Cabell Library, 
will be made available for borrow- 
ing through interlibrary loan 

Dan Yanchisin, special collec- 
tions librarian and university ar- 
chivist, said it is unusual when 
materials from research collec- 
tions are made available to the 
public. Generally, he added, the 
rarity or condition of such items 
limits their circulation. 

Yanchisin noted the NVR book 
collection substantially adds to 
the library's holdings in modern 
American literature. The archives 


of the NVR join other historical 
records deposited at the library by 
such literary organizations as the 
Poetry Society of Virginia, the 
Ellen Glasgow Society, and the 
Virginia Writers Club, all of which 
document the development of 
literature in the state. 

Readers, writers, or researchers 
interested in special collections 
materials at VCU should contact 
their local librarian, who can ar- 
range a loan from the Special Col- 
lections Department. 


Indicative of efforts nationwide to 
enhance prehospital care capabili- 
ties, VCU has begun an emer- 
gency medical technician-para- 
medic (EMT-P) training program. 

The Virginia General Assembly 
appropriated $92,000 during its 
last session to initiate and admin- 
ister the program. The state has 
used the university as a testing 
center for paramedics in years 
past, but this program marks the 
first full education program of its 
kind offered at VCU. EMT-Ps will 
be trained to administer the most 
advanced level of prehospital care 

The EMT-P serves as an impor- 
tant link between the patient and 
the hosptial and is often the first 
clinically competent person to 
evaluate a critically ill or injured 
patient. The paramedic assesses, 
examines, initiates life-saving 
measures, and allays patients' 

The VCU program will take a 
group of cardiac EMTs (intermedi- 
ate emergency medical techni- 
cians) through course instruction 
and elevate them to full para- 
medic status according to pro- 
gram director Dr. Kimball Maull, 
associate professor of surgery. 
"By bringing them to this level 
and having these highly trained 

individuals in the field, we can 
greatly improve the level of pre- 
hospital care in Virginia," said 

Patient care 
by computer 

With installation of the hospital 
information system (HIS) com- 
plete, the university's Medical 
College of Virginia Hospitals now 
operate one of the most advanced 
computer systems in the country. 

HIS is a computerized system 
of recording patient data. Patient 
information is recorded on termi- 
nals located at nursing stations or 
in doctors' lounges. Requests by 
physicians for medication, labora- 
tory tests, or special diets entered 
into the machines are sent directly 
to the appropriate departments. 
Less than five seconds elapses 
from the time a physician enters 
data until the appropriate depart- 
ment receives it. 

Along with recording patient 
data, the system is useful in trans- 
acting patient billing. HIS has 
helped improve collections by 
eliminating lost paperwork, de- 
creasing the likelihood of numeri- 
cal errors, and generally speeding 
up the entire billing procedure. 

Four hundred HIS terminals, 
each costing approximately 
$7,000, have been installed in the 
various hospital buildings. Instal- 
lation began in July 1977. 

the pressure 

Brain surgeons at VCU have 
found that deaths from severe 
head injuries can be reduced by 
more than half if victims have 
blood clots in the brain removed 
surgically within four hours of the 

In a report published in the 
Nezv England Journal of Medicine 
the surgeons reported on their 
experience with acute subdural 
hematomas — accumulations of 
blood and blood clots that form 
between the brain and its tough 
outer covering — treated in 82 pa- 
tients at the university's Medical 
College of Virginia Hospitals be- 
tween December 1972 and Febru- 
ary 1980. 

The report of their research on 
acute subdural hematomas is one 
of the most complete in the medi- 
cal literature and encompasses 
measurements of almost all varia- 
bles that affect recovery from he- 
matomas, which occur in almost 
25 percent of all serious brain 
injuries due to accidents. All 82 
victims were unconscious when 
they arrived in the emergency 
room and were among 366 pa- 
tients treated for serious brain 
injuries at the MCV Hospitals' 
Head Injury Center during a 
seven-year period. 

Other groups of surgeons have 
reported that acute subdural he- 
matomas result in death for 60 to 
90 percent of accident victims 
with them. The surgeons at MCV 
Hospitals reported an overall 
death rate of 57 percent for 82 
patients who had subdural hema- 
tomas, but a death rate of only 
about 30 percent for patients who 
were treated within four hours of 

"Rapid transport to a hospital 
that is capable of providing 
prompt diagnosis and surgery 
within four hours of the injury 
will substantially reduce deaths in 
patients with traumatic subdural 


hematomas," said Dr. John Seelig, 
one of the authors of the report. 

"Since acute subdural hema- 
tomas develop in approximately 
25 percent of patients who are 
admitted while comatose from 
head injury, this information is 
critically important for rescue 
squads, emergency room physi- 
cians, and tertiary physicians who 
are directly involved in the trans- 
port, diagnosis, and treatment of 
these patients," said Dr. Donald 
Becker, chairman of neurosurgery 
and co-author of the report. 

Seelig explained that a hema- 
toma beneath the brain's outer 
covering, the dura, creates pres- 
sure that injures brain tissue, 
which responds by swelling and 
creating even more pressure. 
Controlling pressure within the 
skull is a major factor in the care 
of head injuries, he said. Patients 
who had subdural clots removed 
within four hours of injury had a 
lower incidence and severity of 
elevated pressure than those who 
underwent surgery after four 

A new test developed for day- 
to-day clinical use at MCV Hospi- 
tals, and used there almost exclu- 
sively for brain injured patients 
since 1975, was applied to 40 of 
the patients. It measures the 
brain's electrical response to ex- 
ternal stimuli, including sound, 
light, and touch, in completely 
unconscious patients. The test, 
called evoked potential electroen- 
cephalography, detected severe 
abnormalities in the electrical 
activities of 15 of the 40 tested. All 
15 died. Of 25 patients whose 
evoked potential tests were nor- 
mal or only mildly abnormal, 19 
had functional recoveries, two 
were severely disabled, and four 
died of complications only 
vaguely related to their brain inju- 

"These statistics prove that we 
can predict more accurately 
whether a patient will recover 
from severe head injury," said 

Cutting health 
care costs 

A new nationwide trend in reduc- 
ing hospital costs is not going 
unnoticed by the Medical College 
of Virginia Hospitals at VCU. 

Upgraded facilities for ambula- 
tory care, including ambulatory or 
one-day surgery, have recently 
opened to provide more options 
for patients at the medical center. 
If one-day surgery care fits their 
needs, patients will find them- 
selves saving approximately 50 
percent of the costs normally as- 
sociated with the same surgical 
procedure involving a hospital 

While all the services contained 
in the new Ambulatory Care Cen- 
ter have previously existed at the 
hospitals, the new center makes 
more space available for this type 
of care. In addition to ambulatory 
surgery, the center includes the 
Department of Ophthalmology, 
with an outpatient clinic treating 
10,000 patients each year for dis- 
eases of the eye such as cataracts, 
glaucoma, or eye surgery. The 
Department of Otolaryngology 
operates an audiology clinic to 
evaluate hearing losses for pa- 
tients due to injury or disease. 

The ambulatory surgery area 
plans to perform 3,400 to 3,700 
surgical procedures during its first 
year of existence. A majority of 
these were already being per- 
formed by the Department of 
Obstetrics and Gynecology in 
another area but the new facility 
provides space for surgeons from 
plastic surgery, pediatric surgery, 
orthopedic surgery, oral surgery, 
and general surgery. 

Outpatient surgery is generally 
an option for the low-risk patient 
who is in need of a relatively mi- 
nor surgical procedure. In fact, 
the majority of procedures will 
require only analgesia and local 

The types of procedures which 
can be performed for obstetrics 
and gynecology include D&Cs, 
laparoscopies, and hysterosco- 
pies. Plastic surgeons will per- 
form face lifts, breast augmenta- 
tions, and nose and hand 
surgery. Pediatric surgery will use 
it for such procedures as infant 
hernias while oral surgeons will 
use it for extractions, and general 
surgeons for breast biopsies. 

Teaching children 
right from wrong 

Rising juvenile crime rates and a 
sense that some youngsters lack 
respect for the law troubles many 
Virginia parents, teachers, law- 
yers, and law enforcement 
officials. Several agencies are at- 
tempting to deal with concerns 
about law and Virginia's younger 
citizens. One relatively new and 
promising program concept — law- 
related education — involves the 
use of schools to teach Virginia's 
students about law and citizen- 

Law-related education is a na- 
tional movement undertaken 
during the past decade by bar and 
educational groups around the 
country. The movement's primary 
goal is incorporating legal studies 
into the curricula of all public 
schools, from kindergarten 
through high school. 

During the past three years a 
statewide program for law-related 
education, the Virginia Institute 
for Law and Citizenship Studies, 
has been instrumental in educat- 
ing thousands of Virginia stu- 
dents about their legal rights and 

The institute recently estab- 
lished headquarters at VCU's 
School of Education. The program 
is funded by grants from the Vir- 
ginia State Bar, the Virginia Bar 
Association, and the Virginia Law 
Foundation, with supporting 
funds and services pro\'ided by 
the School of Education. 

Jeffrey Southard, director of the 


institute since June 1979, sug- 
gested that law-related education 
is a necessary element in the cur- 
riculum oi any school system. 
"Law-related education can help 
restore confidence in any legal 
system, and it encourages respon- 
sible civic and political involve- 
ment on the part of students," he 

"Providing students with a 
better understanding of our laws 
will lead to a more responsible 
citizenry and perhaps a reduction 
in crime and delinquent behav- 
ior," said Southard. 

The institute's primary func- 
tions are to train teachers and 
students in law-related education 
and to establish a statewide net- 
work of lawyers, judges, and law 
enforcement personnel who vol- 
unteer to provide school systems 
with speakers and information on 
the legal system. 

The institute began in early 
1978 with a U.S. Justice Depart- 
ment grant to the Virginia State 
bar. It was initially known as the 
Law-Related Education (LRE) 
Program and provided teacher 
training and curriculum develop- 
ment services during the next 
three years to more than 40 school 
systems and state agencies. 

The LRE Program operated 
during the 1978-79 school year 
from the Chesterfield County 
School System and from 1979 
until June 1981 from the Norfolk 
City Public Schools. In April 1981 
the LRE Program incorporated as 
a non-profit corporation, the Vir- 
ginia Institute for Law and Citi- 
zenship Studies. 

According to the institute's 
director, the move to VCU's 
School of Education provides the 
program with the opportunity to 
offer a unique series of law-related 
educational projects during the 
coming year. 

"By using the staff, the facili- 
ties, and projects already under- 
way at VCU, we have an excellent 
vehicle for dealing with school 

systems in the Richmond area 
and around the state," Southard 

In conjunction with the School 
of Education's Office of Continu- 
ing Education and Field Services, 
the institute will offer graduate 
courses, regional workshops, and 
conferences for teachers. The 
institute will also serve as a clear- 
ing house for law-related mate- 
rials and provide curriculum de- 
velopment and other technical 
assistance to individual school 

Southard believes the outlook 
for law-related education in Vir- 
ginia is bright. "With the support 
of VCU, the aid of the state's two 
major bar groups, and a broad 
interest by teachers in this field 
established over the last three 
years, there is no reason why we 
cannot have the best program in 
the country to provide students 
with a solid foundation in legal 
and constitutional principles." 

Soccer success 

Wins over state rivals Old Domin- 
ion University, James Madison 
University, Virginia Military Insti- 
tute, and the University of Rich- 
mond highlighted the university's 
most successful soccer season in 
Though fielding a team that 

returned only two seniors, the 
Rams compiled a 12-5-3 record. 
Along with establishing a record 
for most wins, the Rams also set 
records for most goals scored (60) 
and fewest goals allowed (27). 

Several players set single sea- 
son records. Tedmore Henry es- 
tablished an individual scoring 
record with 33 points. He and 
Beth Kim each tallied 14 goals for 
the squad. Thor Hockett also es- 
tablished a record for intercep- 
tions with 407. 

Other teams defeated by the 
squad included Newport News 
Apprentice, Trenton State Univer- 
sity, Longwood College, Liberty 
Baptist College, Christopher 
Newport College, Virginia Wes- 
leyan College, Cabrini College, 
and Mary Washington University. 
The Rams lost to Randolph Ma- 
con College, Virginia Tech, The 
College of William and Mary, 
George Mason, and South Ala- 
bama University while tying Uni- 
versity of Virginia, Wake Forest 
University, and Longwood. 



Paul Barberini, director of 
financial aid, has received the 
President's Award for his out- 
standing work and concern for 
handicapped students in Virginia. 
The presentation was made by 
the Virginia Association of Stu- 
dent Financial Aid Administra- 

Dr. John Borgard, assistant 
dean of the College of Humanities 
and Sciences, is president-elect of 
the National Association of Aca- 
demic Affairs Administrators. 

Dr. John Bowman, associate 
professor of economics, has been 
appointed chairman of the Local 
Nonproperty Taxation Committee 
for 1981-82. 

Dr. James Boykin, professor of 
real estate, has been appointed to 
the Board of Governors of the 
American Institute of Corporate 
Asset Management. 

Dr. Earle Coleman, associate 
professor of philosophy and reli- 
gious studies, is a contributing 
author to the Abingdon Dictionary 
of Living Religions. 

Dr. Keith Crim, professor of 
philosophy and religious studies, 
is general editor and contributing 
author to the Abingdon Dictionari/ 
of Living Religions. 

Dr. Leo Dunn, chairman. De- 
partment of Obstetrics and Gyne- 
cology, has been elected president 
of the Virginia Obstetrical and 
Gynecological Society. 

Dr. Clifford Edwards, associate 
professor of philosophy, is a con- 
tributing author to the Abingdon 
Dictionary of Living Religions. 

Dr. Vivien Ely, professor of 
education, has been elected chair- 
man of the board of trustees of 
the Interstate Distributive Educa- 
tion Curriculum Consortium. 

Dr. Gloria Francis, professor 
and director of research. School of 
Nursing, published a monograph. 

"The Therapeutic Use of Pets," in 
the June 1981 issue of Nursing 

Dr. Leigh Grosenick, professor 
of public administration and in- 
terim director of the doctorate of 
public administration program, 
has received the 1981 Merit award 
from the National Association of 
Towns and Townships for provid- 
ing support and leadership to the 

Dr. Thomas Hall, Jr., professor 
and chairman. Department of 
Philosophy and Religious Studies, 
is a contributing author to the 
Abingdon Dictionary of Living Reli- 

Dr. John Heil, assistant profes- 
sor of philosophy and religious 
studies, has been named a fellow 
by the National Endowment for 
the Humanities. 

James Hooker, assistant profes- 
sor of administration of justice 
and public safety, has been ap- 
pointed editor of the national 
newsletter produced by the 
American Criminal Justice Associ- 

Evelyn Jez, instructor, English 
department, was recently elected 
Richmond area president of the 
National Organization for 

Dr. Lemont Kier, professor and 
chairman. Department of Phar- 
maceutical Chemistry, has been 
named an Academy Fellow bv the 
Academy of Pharmaceutical Sci- 

Richard Luck, assistant profes- 
sor of rehabilitation counseling, 
has been awarded the Rehabilita- 
tion Manpower Award from the 
Mid-Atlantic Region of the Na- 
tional Rehabilitation Association. 

Dr. Marino Martinez-Carrion, 

chairman of biochemistry, has 
been selected secretary-general of 
the Pan American Association of 
Biochemical Societies. 

Dr. Harold Maurer, chairman. 
Department of Pediatrics, has 
been appointed to the hematol- 
ogy/oncology sub-board of the 
American Board of Pediatrics. 

Dr. Gordon Melson, associate 
professor of chemistry, has re- 
ceived a $130,351 two-year grant 
from the U.S. Department of En- 
ergy to study "New Catalysts for 
the Indirect Liquefacation of 

Dr. Mary Odell, assistant pro- 
fessor of anthropology, is a con- 
tributing author to the Abingdon 
Dictionary of Livi)ig Religions. 

Dr. J. John Palen, professor of 
sociology and anthropology, is 
the author of a new book. City 
Scenes: Problems and Prospects, pub- 
lished by Little, Brown, & Com- 

Dr. Edward Peeples, Jr., associ- 
ate professor of preventive medi- 
cine, has been elected to the 
board of directors of the Associa- 
tion for Behaviciral Sciences and 
Medical Education. 

Dr. William Price, assistant 
vice-president for academic af- 
fairs, has received the AACRAO 
Distinguished Service Award for 
continuous outstanding service to 
the association. 

Dr. Jesse Steinfeld, dean. 
School of Medicine, has been 
elected to the board of directors of 
the National Fund for Medical 

Dr. Alfred Szmuski, associate 
professor of physiologv, has been 
elected first vice-president of the 
American Congress of Rehabilita- 
tion Medicine. 




Sarah V. Forstmann (B.S. social 
work) represented VCU at the 
inauguration of the Rev. John T. 
Richardson, CM., as president of 
DePaul University in Chicago in 


Dr. Peter N. Pastore (M.D.) has 
been appointed scholar in resi- 
dence for the Tompkins-McCaw 
Library at VCU. 


Jacob C. Huffman (M.D.) rep- 
resented VCU at the inauguration 
of President Hugh Alfred Latimer 
at West Virginia Wesleyan College 
in October. 


Howard McCue, Jr., and Caro- 
lyn Moore McCue (M.D., M.D.) 
served as co-chairmen of the per- 
sonal gifts division of Richmond's 
1981 United Way fund drive. He 
is an associate professor of clinical 
medicine at VCU and executive 
vice-president of the insurance 
services division of the Life Insur- 
ance Company of Virginia. She is 
a professor of pediatrics at VCU. 


Ann Powell Satterfield (B.S. 
social science) has been elected to 
the Richmond metropolitan board 
of United Virginia Bank. She had 
served on the bank's Richmond 
area board since 1977. 


W. Donald Moore (M.D.) is 
chief of staff at Good Hope Hospi- 
tal in Erwin, North Carolina. 


Patricia Albright Adams (B.S. 
medical technology) invites class 
of 1947 members interested in a 
35th reunion to contact her at 
2406 Gurley Road, Richmond, 
VA 23229, (804) 270-6022. 


Max Dale Largent (dentistry) 
represented VCU at the inaugura- 
tion of President Herbert Hal 
Reynolds at Baylor University in 
Waco, Texas, in September. 


Don A. Hunziker (B.S. busi- 
ness) has been elected president 
of the Southern Furniture Manu- 
facturers Association. 

Charles T. Wood (B.S. applied 
science, M.H.A. 1955) has been 
appointed chairman of the Ameri- 
can College of Hospital Adminis- 
trators, a Chicago-based profes- 
sional society. 


Peggy Abbott Miller (certificate 
costume design) has recently re- 
searched, designed, and con- 
structed costumes for life-sized 
mannequins of King George, III, 
of England and Nathaniel Greene. 
She was commissioned for the 
work by the Augusta-Richmond 
County Museum of Augusta, 


Mitchell L. Easter (B.S. busi- 
ness administration) has been 
hired by Universal Foods Corpo- 
ration in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 
as general manager of distribu- 

Jean Leftwich Frawner (B.S. 
business education) is now teach- 
ing in Hanover, Virginia. She is 
chairman of the business depart- 
ment at Lee-Davis High School 
and serves as cooperative office 
education coordinator. 

Jean Nelson Gibbons (B.F.A. 
commercial art) has been assigned 
to the U.S. Army Troop Support 
Agency as a visual information 
specialist with the Office of Ad- 
ministrative Services at Fort Lee, 


Claudine Carew (B.F.A. drama) 
recently played the role of 
Serafina della Rose in the Wil- 
liamsburg Players' production of 
"The Rose Tattoo." 

William H. Hark (M.D.) is chief 
of the Aeromedical Standards 
Division, Office of Aviation Medi- 
cine, of the Federal Aviation Ad- 

Hubert Elmer Kiser, Jr., (den- 
tistry) has been named a junior 
director of the Southern Society of 
Orthodontists. He has served as 
president of both the Virginia and 
West Virginia Orthodontic Soci- 

Barbara H. Sant (B.F.A. art 
education) has been awarded a 
scholarship and study grant to 
pursue graduate work at Old Do- 
minion University and Norfolk 
State University. 


M. Teresa Dumouchelle (B.S. 
voice) is now working as director 
of meetings, management serv- 
ices, and exhibits for the National 
School Boards Association in 
Washington, D.C. 

Samuel H. Treger (B.S. busi- 
ness) has received IBM Corpora- 
tion's "Outstanding Achievement 
Award" for developing financial 
control programs for overseas 
IBM companies. He is manager of 
financial services with IBM. 

Winfred O. Ward (M.D.) re- 
cently addressed the Northern 
Virginia Medical Society on psy- 
chosomatic diseases and medical 
hypnosis. He is co-author of the 
book. The Healing of Lia. 


G. Joseph Norwood (phar- 
macy) has been named dean of 
the College of Pharmacy of North 
Dakota State University. He previ- 
ously served as director of the 
Health Services Research Center 
at the University of Iowa. 



William F. Abernathy (B.S. 
sociology), is reference librarian 
and associate professor at Asbury 
College in Wilmore, Kentucky. 

Thomas L. Wilkinson, Jr., (B.S. 
applied science) has been elected 
treasurer of the Richmond Chap- 
ter of the American Society for 


Myrna J. Howells (B.S. busi- 
ness, M.S. 1970) has been ap- 
pointed chairman of the Division 
of Business at John Tyler Commu- 
nity College in Chester, Virginia. 

William I. Ivey (B.S. psychol- 
ogy, M.S. clinical psychology 
1971) has been named executive 
director of North Central Okla- 
homa Community Mental Health 
Services, Inc., in Enid, Oklahoma. 

Austin T. Parker (M.S.W.) is 
employed as a clinical social 
worker at Indiana University in 
Bloomington, Indiana. 


L. Dans Callans (B.S. account- 
ing) has been named dealer/gen- 
eral manager of Monterey Bay 
Ford and Dodge in Seaside, Cali- 

Priscilla A. Rappolt (B.F.A. art 
education, M.F.A. 1968), had her 
work exhibited at Pobai's Place in 
Lexington, Virginia. She has 
given several one-woman shows 
in New York, Virginia, and Flor- 

Michael G. Rozos (B.S. recrea- 
tional leadership) has been ap- 
pointed director of leisure services 
for the city of Hollywood, Florida. 

Wallace Michael Saval (B.A. 
history) has been named assistant 
principal at Walton Elementary 
School in Hopewell, Virginia. 

Rudolph O. Shackelford (B. 
Mus. composition/organ) has 
recently published the following 
pieces: "Sweelnick Variations" for 
harpsichord or organ (Belwin- 
Mills Publishing Company); "A 
Dallapiccola Chronology" {Musical 

Quartcrlil, July 1981); and "Con- 
versation with Vincent Persi- 
chetti" Perspectives i}i Neiv Music, 
Vol. 19). 

Maurice A. Shenk (B.F.A. inte- 
rior design) represented VCU at 
the inauguration of Ralph E. 
Christoffersen as president of 
Colorado State University in Oc- 


Susan G. Brown (B.F.A. art) 
presented a show of her work 
titled "Landscapes in Pastels" at 
Richard Bland College in Peters- 

Richard A. Reed (B.S. business 
administration) has been named 
director of Mortgage Programs for 
the Federal Home Loan Mortgage 
Corporation in Washington, D.C. 

Annie Mae Cowardin (B.S. 
elementary education, M.Ed, 
guidance 1970) is working as a 
teacher in the Hanover County 
School System. Last year, she was 
elected "Teacher of the Year" by 
the faculty of Washington-Henry 


Carol Spencer Glower (B.S. 
nursing) has received her master's 
degree in nursing from the Uni- 
versitv of Delaware. 

Clifford C. Earl (B.F.A. fine 
arts) presented an exhibit during 
the East Coast Governors Confer- 
ence in Atlantic City in August. 

Shirley Boelt Graham (B.S. 
business education) of Powhatan, 
Virginia, has been named an as- 
sistant vice president for Central 
Fidelity Bank. 

Fred Kain (B.S. business man- 
agement) has been named general 
manager of Case Power and 
Equipment in Racine, Wisconsin. 

Philip Lakernick (M.H.A.) has 
been elected president of District 
V of the North Carolina Hospital 

Gray F. Morris (B.A. history) 
participated as a Union Army 
soldier of 1861-65 in the living 
history program at Fort Harrison, 
Virginia, last summer. He is cur- 
rently working toward a master's 
degree in public administration at 

Robert E. Purvis (M.F.A.) re- 
cently exhibited six sculptures at 
the Foundry Gallery in Washing- 
ton, D.C. He is an art professor at 
Bridgewater College. 

David R. White (B.S. advertis- 
ing, M.F.A. design 1980) has been 
appointed an assistant professor 
of art at the University of Hawaii 
in Honolulu. 

Robert M. Thornton (B.S. man- 
agement) has received the CCIM 
designation from the Realtors 
National Marketing Institute. A 
real estate broker with Harvey 
Lindsay and Company in Virginia 
Beach, Thornton has also been 
promoted to major in the Virginia 
Army National Guard. 

Jody Forman (B.S. social wel- 
fare, M.S.W. 1974) is working as a 
writer/editor in the White House 
Office of Policy Development. 
Forman is involved in preparation 
of the federal drug abuse and 
control strategy. 


David L. Ballard (B.S, busi- 
ness) has graduated from the 
Naval War College in Newport, 
Rhode Island. He joined the Navy 
in 1962. 

Dr. William C. Bosher, Jr., 
(M.Ed, counselor education) has 
been appointed superintendent of 
Henrico County Public Schools. 
He formerly served as the admin- 
istrative director for personnel 
and professional development for 
the Virginia Department of Edu- 
cation in Richmond. 

Melvin L. Bowles, Jr., (B.S. 
business administration) has been 
promoted to vice-president and 
corporate auditor by Dominion 
Bankshares Corporation of Roa- 

J. B. Call, III, (B.S. general 
business) has been named an 


officer of the Richmond metropol- 
itan chapter of the American Insti- 
tute of Real Estate Appraisers. 

J. Ronald Courtney (B.F.A. fine 
arts) of Urbanna, Virginia, has 
created a mascot for Urbanna's 
oyster industry, Clyde the Oyster. 
Courtney has set up a home stu- 
dio from which he will offer de- 
sign and commerical art services. 

Lois Garrison (B.F.A. fashion 
art) has been named vice-presi- 
dent of Siddall, Matus & Cough- 
ter, a Richmond advertising firm. 


Class Rings 

If you failed to buy a class ring as a 
student you can now order one. 
Rings for men and women are 
available in a variety of styles. For 
more information and a price list, 
write for a ring order kit. Please 
specify whether the ring is for a 
man or woman. Your request 
should be mailed to: 

Alumni Activities Office, 
Virginia Commonwealth Univer- 
sity, Richmond, Virginia 23284. 

William M. Ginther (B.S. busi- 
ness management, M.S. business 
1974) has been appointed head of 
the automated information serv- 
ices division at United Virginia 
Bank in Richmond. He formerly 
served as vice-president of infor- 
mation processing in the division. 

Linda J. Hager (B.S. nursing) is 
employed as a staff nurse at Me- 
morial Hospital in Danville, Vir- 

Oakley N. Holmes, Jr., (MA. 
art education) has developed a 
multiscreen presentation titled 
"Missing Pages: Black Images/ 
World Art." He is currently asso- 
ciate professor of art at Jackson- 
ville State University in Alabama. 

Suzanne Gallup Martin (B.S. 
general business) represented 
VCU at the inauguration of James 
T. Spainhower as president of the 
College of the Ozarks in Point 
Lookout, Missouri, in October. 
Martin teaches nutrition at the 

Naomi L. Payne (B.S. business) 
of Chester, Virginia, is the editor 
of Troop Support Digest at the U.S. 
Army Troop Support Agency at 
Fort Lee, Virginia. She formerly 
served as a writer with the U.S. 
Army Quartermaster School on 

Ana Maria Perez (resident, 
pathology) is director of the Clini- 
cal Pathology Department at Rad- 
ford Community Hospital in Rad- 
ford, Virginia. 

Antonio Perez (resident, pa- 
thology) is chief pathologist at 
Radford Community Hospital in 
Radford, Virginia. 

David P. Robinson (B.S. his- 
tory and social science education) 
has been promoted to major in 
the United States Marine Corps. 

Lawrence Walter Zinski (B.S. 
business management) has been 
appointed general manager for 
plant operations in Louisville, 
Kentucky, by Philip Morris. He 
previously served as general man- 
ager of the company's Stockton 
Street and 20th Street manufactur- 
ing facilities in Richmond. 


Lemuel Copeland (M.S.W.) is 
the director of the Williamsburg- 
Greenpoint District of the New 
York City department of general 
social services. 

Rodney D. Dorinson (H.A.) 
has received his doctorate from 
the University of Pittsburgh Grad- 
uate School of Public Health. 

William T. Highberger, Jr., 
(B.S. management) has been pro- 
moted to marketing director by 
the Coca-Cola Bottling Company 
of New England. 

Robert P. Hilldrup (M.Ed, ad- 
ministration and supervision) has 
been named director of the media 
services office at Mary Washing- 
ton College in Fredricksburg, 

Ronald Hite Kline (B.S. distrib- 
utive education) has graduated 
from the advanced marketing 
school at the University of Vir- 
ginia and is presently enrolled in 
the M.B.A. program at James 
Madison University. 

Linwood R. Robertson (B.S. 
business administration) has been 
appointed senior assistant corpo- 
rate secretary for Virginia Electric 
and Power Company in Rich- 


Joseph F. Leary, Sr., (M.M.E.) 
has opened a Nationwide Insur- 
ance Office in Culpepper, Vir- 

Steven M. Mickle (B.F.A. com- 
munication arts and design) re- 
cently had his work exhibited at 
the galleries of the Lynchburg Art 

John W. Morris (B.S. health 
and physical education) has been 
named women's tennis coach at 
the University of Virginia. He is 
associate director of intramurals at 
the university. 

Bartholomew Francis Munnelly 
(B.S. business administration, 
M.B.A. 1977) has been appointed 
a vice-president for Central Fidel- 
ity Bank. He is manager of the 
installment loan department. 


V. Wayne Orton (M.S.W.) has 

been appointed assistant to the 
city manager for human services 
in Portsmouth, Virginia 

Raymond M. Sawyer (B.S. 
business administration) has been 
named commercial lines under- 
writer for the Richmond office of 
the U.S. Insurance Group. 

Jo Ann R. Spiegel (M.Ed, ele- 
mentary education) is working as 
a developmental program funding 
specialist for the Bethel Park 
School District in Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania. In that capacity she 
helps develop educational pro- 
grams and raise money for them 
from state, federal and private 

Judith Marshall Stell (B.S. rec- 
reational leadership) is working in 
the trust department at First and 
Merchants Bank. 

Ray W. Verser (B.S. advertis- 
ing) is director of marketing for 
the Old Country/Busch Gardens 
in Williamsburg, Virginia. 

William J. P. Whitley, Jr., 
(B.F.A. sculpture) has been 
named advertising production 
and traffic assistant by Reynolds 
Metals Companv in Richmond. 


Katherine S. Bazak (B.F.A. 
painting and printmaking) is 
teaching at the California College 
of Arts and Crafts in Oakland. 

Martha Beeman (M.S.W.) of 
Rancho Palos Verdes, California, 
has completed qualifying exami- 
nations and is working on the 
thesis for her D.S.W. degree at 
the University of Southern Cali- 
fornia School of Social Work. She 
has twice received a National 
Institute of Mental Health fellow- 

Douglas R. Stell (B.S. recrea- 
tional leadership) was recently 
promoted to chief petty officer in 
the 5th district Coast Guard Re- 

Alice Ruth Tangerini (B.F.A. 
painting and printmaking) is em- 
ployed as a staff illustrator in the 

department of botany at the 


Janice A. Arone (B.F.A. sculp- 
ture) had her work on display in 
the "Craftsmen 1981" exhibition 
at Lynchburg College. 

A. J. Cahen (B.S. physics) is 
employed as an engineering de- 
partment manager with the Coca- 
Cola Company in Atlanta. He is 
also enrolled in the executive 
M.B.A. program at Georgia State 
University in Atlanta. 

Geary H. Davis (B.S. advertis- 
ing) has joined Union Bank's 
Long Beach (California) regional 
office as an assistant vice-presi- 
dent in the commercial loan de- 

Max E. Hitchcock (B.S. admin- 
istration of justice and public 
safety) has been named assistant 
vice-president for loss prevention 
at Best Products Company in 

William M. Kaffenberger, Jr., 
(B.S. English education) has 
formed a record company, Ama- 
riah Records. Formerly employed 
by the VCU budget office, he has 
released two albums which con- 
tain original material. 

Wayne K. Mallard (M.Ed, 
counselor education) is employed 
as a sales representative for Herff- 
Jones Company. 

Judith H. Minter (B.S. social 
welfare, M.S.W. 1979) is a social 
worker with the Counseling Cen- 
ter of the Middle Peninsula- 
Northern Neck Community Serv- 
ices Board in Warsaw, Virginia. 

Charles L. Tate (B.A. historv) is 
working as an advisor/consultant 
with Interamco, Inc. He recently 
completed a one-year advisors' 
tour with the Roval Thai Army. 

John S. Toney'(B.S. political 
science/history) is now working as 
publisher of the Frederick County 
Neivs Lender. 

Rev. James B. Vigen (B.A, his- 
tory) has been elected to the fac- 
ulty of the Inter-Synodical Re- 
gional Theological Seminary in 
southern Madagascar. 

Paul J. Wexler (M.S.W.) has 

been named executive director of 
Sheltered Homes of Alexandria, 
Virginia, a private, nonprofit cor- 
poration which provides residen- 
tial, vocational, adult develop- 
ment, and infant services for 
mentally retarded citizens in Alex- 


Steven B. Brincefield (M.S. 
business) has been named assist- 
ant vice-president in charge of the 
Commercial Property Manage- 
ment Division by Morton G. 
Thalhimer, Inc., in Richmond. 

Brian H. Bristol (B.S. account- 
ing) has recently accepted a posi- 
tion as plant accountant with Pak- 
Master Manufacturing Company 
in Hay ward, California. 

William M. Bruch (B.A. En- 
glish) of Caston Studio in Charlot- 
tesville, Virginia, is teaching and 
conducting statewide seminars in 
bridal portraiture. Two of his pho- 
tographs were selected to appear 
in this vear's Professional Photog- 
rapher's Association of America's 
90th nahonal convention in St. 

Elizabeth Harrison Court 
(B.F.A. art history) has received 
her M.S. degree in art conserva- 
tion from the University of Dela- 

Richard H.J. deNijs (B.F.A. 
commercial arts and design) has 
received a B.S. degree in mechan- 
ical engineering from North Caro- 
lina State University. He is work- 
ing with the IBM Corporation in 
Research Triangle Park, North 

John M. Floyd (M.M.) recently 
became the first percussionist to 
earn the Doctor of Musical Arts 
degree in percussion performance 
and literature from the Eastman 
School of Music of the University 
of Rochester, New York. Floyd is 
director of percussion studies at 
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and 
State University and is principal 



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Send to: 

Alumni Records Officer 
Virginia Commonwealth University 
Richmond, VA 23284 
(804) 257-1228 

Important note: If this magazine is 
addressed to an alumnus who no 
longer lives at the address printed 
on the address label, please advise 
us so that we can correct our re- 
cords. If you know the person's 
correct address, we would appreci- 
ate that information. Also, if a 
husband and wife are receiving 
more than one copy of the maga- 
zine, we would like to know so 
that we can avoid duplicate mail- 
ings. Please provide the names of 
both individuals plus the wife's 
maiden name, if appropriate. 

timpanist and percussionist with 
the Roanoke Symphony. 

Kathleen Lockwood Greene 
(B.F.A. crafts) is self-employed in 
the Washington, D.C., area as a 
commercial photographic stylist 
and makeup artist. 

Murray Glenwood Greene, Jr., 
(B.F.A. sculpture) is completing 
work on his master's degree in 
modern dance at American Uni- 
versity. He has performed with 
the Maryland Dance Theater for 
two seasons and studied musical 
theater with artist-in-residence 
Joshua Logan this summer at 
American University's Wolf Trap 
Academy for the Performing Arts. 

Jonathan J. Kirk (B.F.A. com- 
mercial arts and design), has 
joined the promotion staff of 
Time-Life Books in Alexandria, 
Virginia, as an art director. He 
formerly worked as an art director 
with National Geographic Society. 

Karin R. Laemle (B.S. social 
welfare) received her B.S. in ani- 
mal science from the University of 
Massachusetts and is now em- 
ployed in a veterinary clinic in 
South Deerfield, Massachusetts. 

James F. Means (dentistry) is in 
private practice in Marathon, Flor- 

Edwin John Slipek, Jr., (B.F.A. 
art history) has been named direc- 
tor of corporate communications 
at Best Products Company in 

Ralph D. Spencer (M.S. busi- 
ness) is vice-president/sales for 
Harrison and Bates, Inc., and is a 
member of the Society of Indus- 
trial Realtors. 

Charles E. Thomas, Jr., (B.S. 
chemistry) has been appointed 
research scientist for the analytical 
research division at Philip Morris 
Research Center in Richmond. 

James L. Van Zee (B.S. urban 
studies) is a planner with the Na- 
tional Association of Home 
Builders. He was the former zon- 
ing administrator and chief of 
current planning in Loudon 
County, Virginia. 


Linda S. Atkinson (B.F.A. 
sculpture) of Santa Cruz, Califor- 
nia, has received her M.F.A. at 
California College of Arts and 
Crafts in Oakland. 

Richard A. Bonelli, II, (B.S. 
business administration) is a staff 
appraiser for the real estate divi- 
sion of the U.S. Army Corps of 

Helen Peyton Campbell (B.F.A. 
painting/printmaking) recently 
displayed her work at a graphics 
exhibit at the Hampton Center for 
the Arts and Humanities in 
Hampton, Virginia. 

Thomas J. Dorsey (B.S. busi- 
ness administration and manage- 
ment) has been promoted to sen- 
ior vice-president of Wheat, First 
Securities Inc., a Richmond bro- 
kerage firm. 

Raymond C. Gruenther (M.D.) 
is a family physician with the 
West Point Military Academy. He 
recently returned from a three- 
year assignment with the U.S. 
Army in Stuttgart, Germany. 

Kathleen Wong McFadden 
(B.S. nursing, B.F.A. commercial 
arts and design 1972) is doing 
research in cardiovascular medi- 
cine at the University of Virginia. 

Nancy E. Mehlich (B.F.A. art 
education) is executive secretary 
for the Staunton, Virginia, Fine 
Arts Center. Her responsibilities 
include developing art classes for 

Clarence L. Powell, Jr., (M.D.) 
has been appointed to the local 
advisory board of Paul D. Camp 
Community College in Franklin, 

Deborah P. Shay (B.S. recrea- 
tion) has been promoted to recre- 
ation supervisor of cultural activi- 
ties for the Department of Parks 
and Recreation in Salem, Virginia. 

King D. Webb (B.F.A. com- 
munication arts and design) ex- 
hibited his work in the "Black 
Artists Invitational" art exhibit at 
Lynchburg College in Lynchburg, 

Wendy A. Winters (B.F.A. fash- 
ion design) is employed as an 


account executive with the public 
relations firm of Creamer Dickson 
Basford, Inc., in New York. 


Hee Doe Ahn (M.H.A.) of the 
Republic of Korea has been ap- 
pointed a full-time faculty lecturer 
in health care administration for 
Yonsei University College of Med- 
icine. He also serves as planning 
director of Wonju Christian Hos- 
pital of Yonsei University. 

Richard R. Beverly (B.S. psy- 
chology) has been named director 
of regional special education for 
the Fredericksburg, Virginia, area. 

J. Neil DeMasters (M.S.W.) is 
serving as a consultant with 
Counseling and Consulting Sys- 
tems, Inc., in Berkeley, California. 
He recently began consulting for 
labor unions and industry in San 

Thomas E. Harris (B.S. recrea- 
tion) has been named full-time 
recreational director for Caroline 
County, Virginia. 

Scott L. McCarney (B.F.A. com- 
mercial arts and design) is a grad- 
uate student of photography at 
the Visual Studies Workshop in 
Rochester, New York. He is a 
teaching assistant in the Visual 
Studies Workshop Press and an 
independent publisher of art and 
visual books. 

Jacqueline D. Mitchell (B.S. 
accounting) is a senior accountant 
with the City of Richmond's office 
of risk management. 

Gary W. Roche (B.S. adminis- 
tration of justice and public 
safety) has been promoted to cor- 
poral in the Roanoke County, 
Virginia, Sheriff's Department. 

Karen Specter Westerman (B.A. 
English) represented VCU at the 
inauguration of James Albert 
Gardner as president of Lewis & 
Clark College in November. 

William C. Worsham (B.S. busi- 
ness administration and manage- 
ment, M.B.A. 1979) has been 
named senior reliability engineer 
with Allied Chemical Company in 
Hopewell, Virginia. 


Paul Crouch (M.S.W.) has es- 
tablished a private therapy prac- 
tice in Danville, Virginia. 

Rudolph Freeman, Jr. (M.D.) 
has joined the counseling centers 
of the Middle Peninsula-Northern 
Neck Community Services Board 
in Virginia. 

Mikeal R. Jones (M.B.A.) has 
been named district manager of 
real estate financing for Wes- 
hnghouse Credit Corporation in 

John W. Peery, Jr., (B.S. phar- 
macy) is a pharmacist at Drug Fair 
in Farmville, Virginia, and is pres- 
ident of the Farmville Jaycees. 

Charles C. Ryan, VI, (M.B.A.) 
has been named sales and mar- 
keting manager in the rubber 
division of O'Sullivan Corporation 
in Winchester, Virginia. 

Arild O. Trent (B.S. business 
administration and management) 
has been named branch officer at 
the Azalea Mall branch of the 
Bank of Virginia in Richmond. 


James J. Bellizzi (B.M. applied 
music) is working toward a mas- 
ter's degree in music composition 
at the University of Virginia. 

Deborah G. Clapp (M.D.) has 
been named assistant professor of 
health care sciences at George 
Washington University. 

Clarice U. Dougherty (B.S. 
nursing) is head psychiatric nurse 
in the acute care unit of Rich- 
mond Metropolitan Hospital. She 
recently received the Dr. Thomas 
F. Frist Humanitarian Award for 
exceptional service to the hospital 
and patients. 

Kimberlee M. Early (B.S. psy- 
chology) received her master's 
degree in divinity from Vanderbilt 
University last year. She also re- 
ceived the American Bible Society 
Prize for outstanding achievement 
in biblical studies. 

Rose Hayes Foust (M.S. busi- 
ness) is monitoring administrator 
for the Richmond Area Man- 
power Planning System. 

David R. Hoover (B.F.A. com- 
munication arts and design), for- 
merly assistant to the director/ 
graphic designer in the VCU 
Publications Office, is now art 
director for The Ohio State Uni- 
versity in Columbus, Ohio. 

Terry Martin Marshall (B.S. 
business administration and man- 
agement) has joined Virginia 
Beach Bank of Commerce as a 
cashier. He was formerly a bank 
examiner with the Virginia Bureau 
of Financial Institutions. 

Charles W. Meyer, III, (MP. A. 
community services) has been 
named coordinator of support 
services for Torrence, Dreelin, 
Farthing & Buford, Inc., a Rich- 
mond architectural and engineer- 
ing firm. 

Martha Loving Orgain (B.F.A. 
crafts) recently presented an ex- 
hibit, "Generative Systems Chi- 
cago," at Arsenal Gallery in New 
York City. 

Eberle Lynn Smith (M.S.W.) 
has joined the faculty of Roanoke 
College. She has been an adjunct 
faculty member since 1978. 


Margaret K. Adkins (B.F.A. 
commercial arts and design) is 
working as the graphics supervi- 
sor for the U.S. Army V Corps 
Headquarters in Frankfurt, West 

Sharon R. Baldacci (B.S. mass 
communications) has joined the 
Herald-Progress in Ashland, Vir- 
ginia, as a staff reporter. 

F. Allen Cavedo, III, (B.S. sci- 
ence) recently joined Venture 
Corporation in Vienna, Virginia, 
as a software systems design en- 

Florence C. Davis (M.Ed, coun- 
selor education) has been elected 
treasurer of the James River chap- 
ter of the American Business 
Women's Association. 

Dianne L. Fitzgerald (M.B.A.) 
is assistant vice-president, loan 
administration, for the Barnett 


Bank of South Florida's office in 
Fort Lauderdale. 

Barbara A. Gorski (B.S. biol- 
ogy) is working as an area coordi- 
nator in residential life at Hofstra 
University in Hempstead, New 

Frank A. Greene (B.S. business 
education) is currently employed 
by the Amherst County School 
System and is teaching business 
courses at Amherst High School. 

J. Leslie Kirby (B.S. science) 
has been elected secretary of the 
Richmond Chapter of the Ameri- 
can Society for Metals. 

Suzanne J. Levy-Glotfelty (B.S. 
mass communications) is em- 
ployed as a production secretary 
for WETA/channel 26 in Washing- 
ton, D.C. She is working with a 
new program, "The Lawmakers," 
which airs on PBS stations 
throughout the country. 

Michael W. Lowry (B.S. busi- 
ness administration and manage- 
ment) has opened a commercial 
and investment real estate divi- 
sion of the Home-Land Company 
in Harrisonburg, Virginia. 

Stephen W. Lyons (B.F.A. com- 
mercial arts and design) is a de- 
signer for Morgan Burchette As- 
sociates in Alexandria, Virginia. 

Regina M. Milteer (M.D.) is 
chief resident for the Department 
of Pediatrics at Howard Univer- 
sity Hospital in Washington, D.C. 

Michael T. Montgomery (den- 
tistry) has been appointed assist- 
ant professor of hospital dentistry 
at West Virginia University School 
of Dentistry. 

Vallie O. Murray (B.S. account- 
ing) is working as a senior auditor 
with Coopers and Lybrand in 
Washington, D.C. 

Brian M. Pelzman (B.S. admin- 
istration of justice and public 
safety) attends the Temple Uni- 
versity School of Law in Philadel- 
phia and is a law clerk for the 
United States District Court. 

Nick S. Poulios (M.A. eco- 
nomics) is employed as a senior 
economist in corporate planning 
with the General Public Utilities 
Corporation in Parsippany, New 

Virginia Brown Quarstein (B.S. 
mass communications) is an ac- 
count executive at Public Rela- 
tions Institute in Norfolk. She 
formerly served as a public rela- 
tions writer and an assistant ac- 
count executive. 

C. Edward Rager (B.S. business 
administration and management) 
has accepted a position as em- 
ployee relations advisor with Mo- 
bil Chemical in Beaumont, Texas. 

Barbara L. Walker (M.S.W.) is a 
clinical social worker for North 
Carolina Memorial Hospital in 
Chapel Hill. 

Thomas S. Wash (B.S. informa- 
tion systems) has been named an 
assistant vice-president by Wheat, 
First Securities, Inc., a local bro- 
kerage firm. 


Teresa A. Atkinson (B.S. mass 
communications) is currently en- 
rolled in the University of Virginia 
Law School. 

Robert T. Bishop (B.S. account- 
ing, M.B.A.) is working as an 
auditor for the firm of Derieux, 
Baker, Thompson & Whitt in 
Fredericksburg, Virginia. He also 
teaches accounting part-time at 
Germanna Community College. 

Howard D. Conner (M.S. reha- 
bilitation counseling), a psycho- 
logical consultant in Virginia 
Beach, Virginia, has been admit- 
ted to the International Graduate 
School in St. Louis, Missouri. He 
will pursue a doctor of education 
degree in counseling. 

Julie A. Crawford (B.S. biol- 
ogy) is working as a contract spe- 
cialist with the Department of 
Navy, Naval Air Systems Com- 

David B. Crowl (B.A. history) 
has been named sales manager at 
Stouffer Hotels' National Sales 
Office in Solon, Ohio. 

Jane Booth Estep (B.G.S. non- 
traditional studies) is a commis- 
sary specialist (troop issue) with 
the Directorate of Food Service at 
the U.S. Army Troop Support 
Agency, Fort Lee, Virginia. 

Uta M. McCollum (B.S. mass 
communications) has been as- 
signed to the U.S. Army Troop 
Support Agency at Fort Lee, Vir- 
ginia, as an editorial clerk with 
the Directorate of Resource Man- 

Anne B. McLeod (B.S. informa- 
tion systems) is a senior systems 
analyst with the City of Rich- 
mond's data processing depart- 


Monique C. Braxton (B.S. mass 
communications) is working with 
television station WTVR in Rich- 

A. Elizabeth Burton (M.S. oc- 
cupational therapy) has been 
named director of occupational 
therapy at the Southside Virginia 
Training Center in Petersburg, 

Melanie L. Crouch (B.A. 
French) has joined the Richlands 
News-Press as a news reporter. 
The paper is published in Rich- 
lands, Virginia. 

Ruth M. Elam (B.S. special 
education) is now employed by 
the Cumberland County School 
System and is teaching handi- 
capped preschool children. 

Alan M. Gayle (M.A. eco- 
nomics) has been elected trea- 
surer of the Richmond Associa- 
tion of Business Economists. 

Diane Hill (B.S.W.) has been 
awarded the 1981 Hobart C. Jack- 
son Memorial Fellowship to at- 
tend graduate school at Temple 

John M. Hohl (B.S. administra- 
tion of justice and public safety) 
has been commissioned as an 
ensign in the Naval Reserve. He 
recently completed ground school 
training at the Naval Aviation 
School in Pensacola, Florida. 

Beverly A. Peacock (M.S.W.) 
has been named crisis counselor 
with the YMCA's Women's Victim 
Advocacy Program in Richmond. 
She is in charge of conducting 
group meetings and is establish- 
ing a format for group sessions at 
the organization's Shelter for Bat- 
tered Women.